test protocol
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2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (2) ◽  
pp. 509-522
Luciana Nunes Cordeiro ◽  
Riselane de Lucena Alcântara Bruno ◽  
Lucas Kennedy Silva Lima ◽  
Albericio Pereira de Andrade ◽  

Seed quality is routinely assessed by direct tests, e.g, the germination test, or indirect tests like the tetrazolium test, which has shoown to be promising in the determine viability and vigor, allowing the diagnosis of the main problems that may affect seed quality, such as mechanic damages, field deterioration and storage. In this respect, this study was conducted to develop a tetrazolium test protocol to evaluate the viability and vigor of Tamarindus indica L. seeds. Before exposing the seeds to the tetrazolium solution, seed preconditioning studies were carried out in which seven soaking times were tested. The soaking time that did not cause damage to the seed embryo and allowed the removal of the seed coat to expose the seed structures to the tetrazolium salt was selected. Then, an experiment was set up in a completely randomized design with a 2x3x3 factorial arrangement involving two seed lots, three soaking times in tetrazolium salt (6, 12 and 16 h) and three salt concentrations (0.075, 0.1 and 0.5%), totaling 18 treatments with four replicates of 25 seeds, evaluated at 40 ºC. For each treatment, the seeds were divided into three classes, namely, viable and vigorous embryos (class 1); viable embryos (class 2) and non-viable or dead embryos (class 3). For a comparison with the tetrazolium test results, the two seed lots were analyzed for water content, germination, emergence, first count, germination speed index, emergence speed index, growth and seedling dry weight. The viability and vigor of T. indica seeds can be evaluated after a soaking period of 48 h and immersion for 6h in tetrazolium salt at the concentration of 0.1%, at 40°C, with provides results similar to conventional seed viability tests. The tetrazolium test proved to be adequate to differentiate T. indica seed lots in terms of viability.

Symmetry ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 162
Silvana Mattei ◽  
Luca Cozzarini ◽  
Chiara Bedon

Anti-shatter safety films (ASFs) are often used for structural glass applications. The goal is to improve the response of monolithic elements and prevent fragments from shattering. Thus, the main reason behind their use is the possibility to upgrade safety levels against the brittle failure of glass and minimize the number of possible injuries. However, the impact response of glass elements bonded with Polyethylene terephthalate (PET)-films and pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs) still represents a research topic of open discussion. Major challenges derive from material characterization and asymmetrical variability under design loads and ageing. In particular, the measurement of interface mechanical characteristics for the adhesive layer in contact with glass is a primary parameter for the ASF choice optimization. For this reason, the present paper presents an experimental campaign aimed at calibrating some basic mechanical parameters that provide the characterization of constitutive models, such as tensile properties (yielding stress and Young modulus) for PET-film and adhesive properties for PSA (energy fracture and peel force). In doing so, both tensile tests for PET-films and peeling specimens are taken into account for a commercially available ASF, given that the peeling test protocol is one of most common methods for the definition of adhesion properties. Moreover, an extensive calibration of the Finite Element (FE) model is performed in order to conduct a parametric numerical analysis of ASF bonded glass solutions. Furthermore, a Kinloch approach typically used to determine the fracture energy of a given tape by considering a variable peel angle, is also adopted to compare the outcomes of calibration analyses and FE investigations on the tested specimens. Finally, a study of the effect of multiple aspects is also presented. The results of the experimental program and the following considerations confirm the rate dependence and ageing dependence in peel tests.

2022 ◽  
Etienne Joly ◽  
Agnes Maurel Ribes

We have recently described a very simple and cheap serological test called HAT to detect antibodies directed against the RBD of the SARS-Cov-2 virus. HAT is based on hemagglutination, triggered by a single reagent (IH4-RBD) comprised of the viral RBD domain fused to a nanobody specific for glycophorin, which is expressed at very high levels at the surface of human red blood cells (RBCs). One of the main initial goals of this study was to devise a test protocol that would be sensitive and reliable, yet require no specialized laboratory equipment such as adjustable pipets, so that it could be performed in the most remote corners of the world by people with minimal levels of training. Because antibody levels against the viral RBD have been found to correlate closely with sero-neutralisation titers, and thus with protection against reinfection, it has become obvious during the course of this study that making this test reliably quantitative would be a further significant advantage. We have found that, in PBN, a buffer which contains BSA and sodium azide, IH4-RBD is stable for over 6 months at room temperature, and that PBN also improves HAT performance compared to using straight PBS. We also show that performing HAT at either 4°C, room temperature or 37°C has minimal influence on the results, and that quantitative evaluation of the levels of antibodies directed against the SARS-CoV-2 RBD can be achieved in a single step using titration of the IH4-RBD reagent. The HAT-field protocol described here requires only very simple disposable equipment and a few microliters of whole blood, such as can be obtained by finger prick. Because it is based on a single soluble reagent, the test can be adapted very simply and rapidly to detect antibodies against variants of the SARS-CoV-2, or conceivably against different pathogens. HAT-field appears well suited to provide quantitative assessments of the serological protection of populations as well as individuals, and given its very low cost, the stability of the IH4-RBD reagent in the adapted buffer, and the simplicity of the procedure, could be deployed pretty much anywhere, including in the poorest countries and the most remote corners of the globe.

2022 ◽  
Monika Frolova


Zhang Ye ◽  
Dina M. Silva ◽  
Daniela Traini ◽  
Paul Young ◽  
Shaokoon Cheng ◽  

Abstract Biofilms are ubiquitous and notoriously difficult to eradicate and control, complicating human infections and industrial and agricultural biofouling. However, most of the study had used the biofilm model that attached to solid surface and developed in liquid submerged environments which generally have neglected the impact of interfaces. In our study, a reusable dual-chamber microreactor with interchangeable porous membranes was developed to establish multiple growth interfaces for biofilm culture and test. Protocol for culturing Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO1) on the air–liquid interface (ALI) and liquid–liquid interface (LLI) under static environmental conditions for 48 h was optimized using this novel device. This study shows that LLI model biofilms are more susceptible to physical disruption compared to ALI model biofilm. SEM images revealed a unique “dome-shaped” microcolonies morphological feature, which is more distinct on ALI biofilms than LLI. Furthermore, the study showed that ALI and LLI biofilms produced a similar amount of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). As differences in biofilm structure and properties may lead to different outcomes when using the same eradication approaches, the antimicrobial effect of an antibiotic, ciprofloxacin (CIP), was chosen to test the susceptibility of a 48-h-old P. aeruginosa biofilms grown on ALI and LLI. Our results show that the minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) of 6-h CIP exposure for ALI and LLI biofilms is significantly different, which are 400 μg/mL and 200 μg/mL, respectively. These results highlight the importance of growth interface when developing more targeted biofilm management strategies, and our novel device provides a promising tool that enables manipulation of realistic biofilm growth. Key points • A novel dual-chamber microreactor device that enables the establishment of different interfaces for biofilm culture has been developed. • ALI model biofilms and LLI model biofilms show differences in resistance to physical disruption and antibiotic susceptibility.

Geosciences ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 25
Virginio Quaglini ◽  
Carlo Pettorruso ◽  
Eleonora Bruschi ◽  
Luca Mari

Past earthquakes have highlighted the seismic vulnerability of prefabricated industrial sheds typical of past Italian building practices. Such buildings typically exhibited rigid collapse mechanisms due to the absence of rigid links between columns, beams, and roof elements. This study aims at presenting the experimental and numerical assessment of a novel dissipative connection system (DCS) designed to improve the seismic performance of prefabricated sheds. The device, which is placed on the top of columns, exploits the movement of a rigid slider on a sloped surface to dissipate seismic energy and control the lateral displacement of the beam, and to provide a recentering effect at the end of the earthquake. The backbone curve of the DCS, and the effect of vertical load, sliding velocity, and number of cycles were assessed in experimental tests conducted on a scaled prototype, according to a test protocol designed accounting for similarity requirements. In the second part of the study, non-linear dynamic analyses were performed on a finite element model of a portal frame implementing, at beam-column joints, either the DCS or a pure friction connection. The results highlighted the effectiveness of the DCS in controlling beam-to-column displacements, reducing shear forces on the top of columns, and limiting residual displacements that can accrue during ground motion sequences.

10.6036/10215 ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 97 (1) ◽  
pp. 30-34
Mónica Diez Marín ◽  

Autonomous vehicles start to be introduced on our roads and will soon become a reality. Although fatal traffic accidents will be significantly reduced, remaining fatal passenger car crashes should be taken into account to ensure the safety of users. The new highly adaptable interior designs, with totally different layouts from the current ones, may significantly impact occupant safety, especially child passenger safety. Analyzing how these new vehicles affect child safety is a challenge that needs to be addressed. The "living room" layout (face-to-face seating position) is one of the preferences of families traveling with children. Young children need further support and supervision so the possibility of rotating seats to be able to be in front of the small children is a valuable feature for parents. Therefore, new seating orientations away from the forward facing position should be taken into account to ensure children protection. The objective of this study is to evaluate child occupant safety in a "living room" seating position (a possible option in full autonomous vehicles) versus the current forward facing position. Virtual testing methodology was used to perform this study. The virtual PIPER child human body model (HBM) was used. This model is one of the only HBMs developed and validated from child PMHS data (Paediatric Post-Mortem Human Surrogate). The two configurations were defined according with the EuroNCAP child occupant protection test protocol. It was found that the "living room" layout presents worse results according to the child's head injury patterns than in forward facing position. In conclusion, attending to the new seating orientations away from the forward facing position, it is necessary to adapt the restraint systems; otherwise children could suffer potentially dangerous situations.

2022 ◽  
Vol 334 ◽  
pp. 04003
Eleonora Gadducci ◽  
Thomas Lamberti ◽  
Loredana Magistri ◽  
Massimo Rivarolo ◽  
Andrea Dellacasa ◽  

PEM Fuel Cells are considered among the most promising technologies for hydrogen utilization in both stationary and automotive applications. The number of FC installations on board ships – alone or in hybrid configuration with batteries – is increasing significantly, although international regulations that drive their installation are still missing. In this scenario, the project TecBia aims to identify a dedicated test protocol and the best commercial PEMFC technology for marine applications, assessing the integration of a 140 kW PEMFC system on the Zero Emission Ultimate Ship (ZEUS) vessel. The system design and technology provider has been chosen after a technical comparison based on a dedicated experimental campaign. The experimental campaign had two goals: (i) analyse the performance of the different PEMFC systems to define the best characteristics for maritime applications; (ii) verify the compliance with naval requirements with reference to current and future standards. The present study shows the resulting test protocol for FC Systems (FCS) for maritime applications, defined starting from the existing international regulations on FCS installations and on naval environment requirements; the results of its application on the commercial system chosen for the installation on ZEUS are reported.

Uwe Hoffmann ◽  
Felix Faber ◽  
Uwe Drescher ◽  
Jessica Koschate

Abstract Purpose Kinetics of cardiorespiratory parameters (CRP) in response to work rate (WR) changes are evaluated by pseudo-random binary sequences (PRBS testing). In this study, two algorithms were applied to convert responses from PRBS testing into appropriate impulse responses to predict steady states values and responses to incremental increases in exercise intensity. Methods 13 individuals (age: 41 ± 9 years, BMI: 23.8 ± 3.7 kg m−2), completing an exercise test protocol, comprising a section of randomized changes of 30 W and 80 W (PRBS), two phases of constant WR at 30 W and 80 W and incremental WR until subjective fatigue, were included in the analysis. Ventilation ($$\dot{V}_{{\text{E}}}$$ V ˙ E ), O2 uptake ($$\dot{V}{\text{O}}_{2}$$ V ˙ O 2 ), CO2 output ($$\dot{V}{\text{CO}}_{2}$$ V ˙ CO 2 ) and heart rate (HR) were monitored. Impulse responses were calculated in the time domain and in the frequency domain from the cross-correlations of WR and the respective CRP. Results The algorithm in the time domain allows better prediction for $$\dot{V}{\text{O}}_{2}$$ V ˙ O 2 and $$\dot{V}{\text{CO}}_{2}$$ V ˙ CO 2 , whereas for $$\dot{V}_{{\text{E}}}$$ V ˙ E and HR the results were similar for both algorithms. Best predictions were found for $$\dot{V}{\text{O}}_{2}$$ V ˙ O 2 and HR with higher (3–4%) 30 W steady states and lower (1–4%) values for 80 W. Tendencies were found in the residuals between predicted and measured data. Conclusion The CRP kinetics, resulting from PRBS testing, are qualified to assess steady states within the applied WR range. Below the ventilatory threshold, $$\dot{V}{\text{O}}_{2}$$ V ˙ O 2 and HR responses to incrementally increasing exercise intensities can be sufficiently predicted.

Membranes ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 10
Muhammed Iberia Aydin ◽  
Damla Ozaktac ◽  
Burak Yuzer ◽  
Mustafa Doğu ◽  
Hatice Inan ◽  

In this study, a novel photoelectrocatalytic membrane (PECM) reactor was tested as an option for the desalination, disinfection, and detoxification of biologically treated textile wastewater (BTTWW), with the aim to reuse it in hydroponic farming. The anionic ion exchange (IEX) process was used before PECM treatment to remove toxic residual dyes. The toxicity evaluation for every effluent was carried out using the Vibrio fischeri, Microtox® test protocol. The disinfection effect of the PECM reactor was studied against E. coli. After PECM treatment, the 78.7% toxicity level of the BTTWW was reduced to 14.6%. However, photocatalytic desalination during treatment was found to be slow (2.5 mg L−1 min−1 at 1 V potential). The reactor demonstrated approximately 52% COD and 63% TOC removal efficiency. The effects of wastewater reuse on hydroponic production were comparatively investigated by following the growth of the lettuce plant. A detrimental effect was observed on the lettuce plant by the reuse of BTTWW, while no negative impact was reported using the PECM treated textile wastewater. In addition, all macro/micronutrient elements in the PECM treated textile wastewater were recovered by hydroponic farming, and the PECM treatment may be an eco-safe wastewater reuse method for crop irrigation.

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