high molecular weight
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2022 ◽  
Vol 176 ◽  
pp. 114276
Li Wang ◽  
Jun Xiang ◽  
Songhang Wang ◽  
Zhe Sun ◽  
Jiating Wen ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Meisam Nazari ◽  
Samuel Bickel ◽  
Pascal Benard ◽  
Kyle Mason-Jones ◽  
Andrea Carminati ◽  

Mucilage is a gelatinous high-molecular-weight substance produced by almost all plants, serving numerous functions for plant and soil. To date, research has mainly focused on hydraulic and physical functions of mucilage in the rhizosphere. Studies on the relevance of mucilage as a microbial habitat are scarce. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) are similarly gelatinous high-molecular-weight substances produced by microorganisms. EPS support the establishment of microbial assemblages in soils, mainly through providing a moist environment, a protective barrier, and serving as carbon and nutrient sources. We propose that mucilage shares physical and chemical properties with EPS, functioning similarly as a biofilm matrix covering a large extent of the rhizosphere. Our analyses found no evidence of consistent differences in viscosity and surface tension between EPS and mucilage, these being important physical properties. With regard to chemical composition, polysaccharide, protein, neutral monosaccharide, and uronic acid composition also showed no consistent differences between these biogels. Our analyses and literature review suggest that all major functions known for EPS and required for biofilm formation are also provided by mucilage, offering a protected habitat optimized for nutrient mobilization. Mucilage enables high rhizo-microbial abundance and activity by functioning as carbon and nutrient source. We suggest that the role of mucilage as a biofilm matrix has been underestimated, and should be considered in conceptual models of the rhizosphere.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Amit Kumar Thakur ◽  
Manni Luthra-Guptasarma

Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) belongs to a group of diseases, called spondyloarthropathies (SpA), that are strongly associated with the genetic marker HLA-B27. AS is characterized by inflammation of joints and primarily affects the spine. Over 160 subtypes of HLA-B27 are known, owing to high polymorphism. Some are strongly associated with disease (e.g., B*2704), whereas others are not (e.g., B*2709). Misfolding of HLA-B27 molecules [as dimers, or as high-molecular-weight (HMW) oligomers] is one of several hypotheses proposed to explain the link between HLA-B27 and AS. Our group has previously established the existence of HMW species of HLA-B27 in AS patients. Still, very little is known about the mechanisms underlying differences in pathogenic outcomes of different HLA-B27 subtypes. We conducted a proteomics-based evaluation of the differential disease association of HLA B*2704 and B*2709, using stable transfectants of genes encoding the two proteins. A clear difference was observed in protein clearance mechanisms: whereas unfolded protein response (UPR), autophagy, and aggresomes were involved in the degradation of B*2704, the endosome–lysosome machinery was primarily involved in B*2709 degradation. These differences offer insights into the differential disease association of B*2704 and B*2709.

Polymers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 232
Carmen Moya-Lopez ◽  
Ivan Bravo ◽  
José A. Castro-Osma ◽  
David Chapron ◽  
Patrice Bourson ◽  

Stereo-diblock copolymers of high molecular weight polylactide (PLA) were synthetized by the one pot-sequential addition method assisted by a heteroscorpionate catalyst without the need of a co-initiator. The alkyl zinc organometallic heteroscorpionate derivative (Zn(Et)(κ3-bpzteH)] (bpzteH = 2,2-bis(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)-1-para-tolylethoxide) proved to assist in the mechanism of reaction following a coordination-insertion process. Kinetic studies along with the linear correlation between monomer and number average molecular weight (Mn) conversion, and the narrow polydispersities supported the truly living polymerization character of the initiator, whereas matrix-assisted laser desorption/Ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) studies showed a very low order of transesterification. The high stereo-control attained for the afforded high molecular weight derivatives was revealed by homonuclear decoupled 1H NMR spectra and polarimetry measurements. The nanostructure of the PLA derivatives was studied by both wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and the stereocomplex phase of the PLA stereo-diblock copolymers was successfully identified.

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