inner core
Recently Published Documents





2022 ◽  
James W. Sears

ABSTRACT A robust, geology-based Proterozoic continental assembly places the northern and eastern margins of the Siberian craton against the southwestern margins of Laurentia in a tight, spoon-in-spoon conjugate fit. The proposed assembly began to break apart in late Neoproterozoic and early Paleozoic time. Siberia then drifted clockwise along the Laurussian margin on coast-parallel transforms until suturing with Europe in late Permian time. The proposed drift path is permitted by a geocentric axial dipole (GAD) magnetic field from Silurian to Permian time. However, the Proterozoic reconstruction itself is not permitted by GAD. Rather, site-mean paleomagnetic data plot ted on the reconstruction suggest a multipolar Proterozoic dynamo dominated by a quadrupole. The field may have resembled that of present-day Neptune, where, in the absence of a large solid inner core, a quadrupolar magnetic field may be generated within a thin spherical shell near the core-mantle boundary. The quadrupole may have dominated Earth’s geomagnetic field until early Paleozoic time, when the field became erratic and transitioned to a dipole, which overwhelmed the weaker quadrupole. The dipole then established a strong magnetosphere, effectively shielding Earth from ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation and making the planet habitable for Cambrian fauna.

Science ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 375 (6577) ◽  
pp. 202-205
Richard G. Kraus ◽  
Russell J. Hemley ◽  
Suzanne J. Ali ◽  
Jonathan L. Belof ◽  
Lorin X. Benedict ◽  

Terapascal iron-melting temperature The pressure and temperature conditions at which iron melts are important for terrestrial planets because they determine the size of the liquid metal core, an important factor for understanding the potential for generating a radiation-shielding magnetic field. Kraus et al . used laser-driven shock to determine the iron-melt curve up to a pressure of 1000 gigapascals (see the Perspective by Zhang and Lin). This value is about three times that of the Earth’s inner core boundary. The authors found that the liquid metal core lasted the longest for Earth-like planets four to six times larger in mass than the Earth. —BG

Atmosphere ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 138
Yu Wang ◽  
Corene J. Matyas

This study examined whether varying moisture availability and roughness length for the land surface under a simulated Tropical Cyclone (TC) could affect its production of precipitation. The TC moved over the heterogeneous land surface of the southeastern U.S. in the control simulation, while the other simulations featured homogeneous land surfaces that were wet rough, wet smooth, dry rough, and dry smooth. Results suggest that the near-surface atmosphere was modified by the changes to the land surface, where the wet cases have higher latent and lower sensible heat flux values, and rough cases exhibit higher values of friction velocity. The analysis of areal-averaged rain rates and the area receiving low and high rain rates shows that simulations having a moist land surface produce higher rain rates and larger areas of low rain rates in the TC’s inner core. The dry and rough land surfaces produced a higher coverage of high rain rates in the outer regions. Key differences among the simulations happened as the TC core moved over land, while the outer rainbands produced more rain when moving over the coastline. These findings support the assertion that the modifications of the land surface can influence precipitation production within a landfalling TC.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
George M. Ongwae ◽  
Mahendra D. Chordia ◽  
Jennie L. Cawley ◽  
Brianna E. Dalesandro ◽  
Nathan J. Wittenberg ◽  

AbstractBacteriophages are highly abundant molecular machines that have evolved proteins to target the surface of host bacterial cells. Given the ubiquity of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) on the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, we reasoned that targeting proteins from bacteriophages could be leveraged to target the surface of Gram-negative pathogens for biotechnological applications. To this end, a short tail fiber (GP12) from the T4 bacteriophage, which infects Escherichia coli (E. coli), was isolated and tested for the ability to adhere to whole bacterial cells. We found that, surprisingly, GP12 effectively bound the surface of Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells despite the established preferred host of T4 for E. coli. In efforts to elucidate why this binding pattern was observed, it was determined that the absence of the O-antigen region of LPS on E. coli improved cell surface tagging. This indicated that O-antigens play a significant role in controlling cell adhesion by T4. Probing GP12 and LPS interactions further using deletions of the enzymes involved in the biosynthetic pathway of LPS revealed the inner core oligosaccharide as a possible main target of GP12. Finally, we demonstrated the potential utility of GP12 for biomedical applications by showing that GP12-modified agarose beads resulted in the depletion of pathogenic bacteria from solution.

2022 ◽  
pp. 136943322110509
Liwen Zhang ◽  
Zhujian Xie ◽  
Jing Li ◽  
Junping Zhang ◽  
Qinglun Yu ◽  

A new type of pier anti-collision composite structure composed of honeycomb steel and polyurethane (PU) elastomer was proposed in this study. The impacts of the shape and filling materials of inner core cells on the failure mode, load–displacement cure, bearing capacity, structural stability, and energy absorption were studied by conducting uniaxial compression tests on device segments. Test results showed that the bearing capacity, structural stability, and energy absorption of honeycomb steel structure were significantly improved by PU elastomer filling. Besides, when compared with the square honeycomb structure and the regular hexagon honeycomb structure, the maximum values of average load, total energy absorption (TEA), and specific energy absorption (SEA), which were 69.6 kN, 1986.1 J, and 1300 J/kg, respectively, for the regular triangle honeycomb structure without PU filling, increased to 459.3%, 376.38%, and 212.5%, respectively, for the regular hexagonal core cell structure with PU filling, which was proved to be the most suitable core structure for pier anti-collision device.

2022 ◽  
Bing Zhang ◽  
Zihe Rao ◽  
Haitao Yang ◽  
Shan Sun ◽  
Yan Gao ◽  

The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, IrtAB, plays a vital role in the replication and viability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), where its function is to import iron-loaded siderophores. Unusually, it adopts the typical fold of canonical ABC exporters. Here, we report the structure of unliganded Mtb IrtAB and its structure in complex with ATP, ADP, and an ATP analogue (AMP-PNP) at resolutions from 2.9 to 3.5 Å. In the ATP-bound state, the two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) form a "head-to-tail" dimer, but IrtAB has an unexpectedly occluded conformation, with the inner core forming a large hydrophilic cavity of about 4600 Å3. Comparison of the structure of the transporter in inward-facing and occluded conformations reveals that the NBD and the intracellular helical region of transmembrane domain (TMD) have an asymmetric allosteric mechanism when ATP binding/hydrolysis such that the one exhibits rigid-body rotation and the other moves in a concerted response as a rigid body. This study provides a molecular basis for the ATP-driven conformational changes that occur in IrtAB and an explanation as to how iron-loaded siderophores are imported into Mtb by IrtAB.

Abstract The properties of diurnal variability in tropical cyclones (TCs) and the mechanisms behind them remain an intriguing aspect of TC research. This study provides a comprehensive analysis of diurnal variability in two simulations of TCs to explore these mechanisms. One simulation is a well known Hurricane Nature Run, which is a realistic simulation of a TC produced using the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF). The other simulation is a realistic simulation produced using WRF of Hurricane Florence (2018) using hourly ERA5 reanalysis data as input. Empirical orthogonal functions and Fourier filtering are used to analyze diurnal variability in the TCs. In both simulations a diurnal squall forms at sunrise in the inner core and propagates radially outwards and intensifies until midday. At midday the upper-level outflow strengthens, surface inflow weakens, and the cirrus canopy reaches its maximum height and radial extent. At sunset and overnight, the surface inflow is stronger, and convection inside the RMW peaks. Therefore, two diurnal cycles of convection exist in the TCs with different phases of maxima: eyewall convection at sunset and at night, and rainband convection in the early morning. This study finds that the diurnal pulse in the cirrus canopy is not advectively-driven, nor can it be attributed to weaker inertial stability at night; rather, the results indicate direct solar heating as a mechanism for cirrus canopy lifting and enhanced daytime outflow. These results show a strong diurnal modulation of tropical cyclone structure, and are consistent with other recent observational and modeling studies of the TC diurnal cycle.

Guan Zhou ◽  
Pengfei Yan ◽  
Qi Wang ◽  
Shijuan Dai ◽  
Xiang Li ◽  

Crashworthiness and anti-vibration performance play critical roles in the performance of passenger cars. Aiming at enhancing the crash resistance and vibration resistance of vehicles thus providing good protection for passengers and drivers, a novel crash box with three-dimensional double arrow type negative Poisson’s ratio structure with functional gradient filling inner core (FGNPR crash box) is introduced in this paper and its performance is studied in detail through the comparison with the conventional crash box and the crash box filled with the uniform gradient negative Poisson’s ratio structure (NPR crash box) in crashworthiness and vibration resistance. Furthermore, range analysis is used to screen out the design variables that have little influence on the evaluation indexes and eliminate them. Based on these, neighborhood cultivation genetic algorithm (NCGA) and non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-ii (NSGA-II) are selected as the optimization algorithms to carry out optimization design respectively and a comparison is made between the two suboptimal results screened out based on the normal boundary intersection (NBI) method to determine the overall optimal solution. Results show that the optimized FGNPR crash box has better crashworthiness and vibration resistance over the other crash boxes and its performance is further verified based on the peak acceleration of B-pillar in full vehicle crash condition. This paper provides some theoretical reference support for the development and exploration of automobile crash box systems.

2022 ◽  
Ramiro Tomasina ◽  
Érica S Martins-Duarte ◽  
Philippe Bastin ◽  
Mathieu Gissot ◽  
Maria E Francia

Centrosomes are the main microtubule-organizing center of the cell. They are normally formed by two centrioles, embedded in a cloud of proteins known as pericentriolar material. The PCM ascribes centrioles with their microtubule nucleation capacity. Toxoplasma gondii, the causative agent of toxoplasmosis, divides by endodyogeny. Successful cell division is critical for pathogenesis. The centrosome, plays central roles in orchestrating the temporal and physical coordination of major organelle segregation and daughter cell formation. The T. gondii centrosome is formed by two domains; an outer core, distal from the nucleus, and an inner core, proximal to the nucleus. This dual organization has been proposed to underlie T. gondii’s cell division plasticity. However, the role of the inner core remains undeciphered. Here, we focus on the role of its only known molecular marker; TgCEP250L1. We show that upon conditional degradation of TgCEP250L1, parasites exhibit nuclear segregation defects, whilst normally forming daughter cells. In addition, the centrioles, disconnect from the nucleus. We explore the structural defects underlying these phenotypes by high resolution microscopy. We show that TgCEP250L1’s location is dynamic and encompasses the formation of the mitotic spindle. Moreover, we show that in the absence of TgCEP250L1, the microtubule binding protein TgEB1, fails to translocate from the nucleus to the mitotic spindle, while polyploid nuclei accumulate. Overall, our data supports a model in which the inner core of the T. gondii centrosome critically participates in cell division by directly impacting the formation or stability of the mitotic spindle.

Trifce Sandev ◽  
Viktor Domazetoski ◽  
Ljupco Kocarev ◽  
Ralf Metzler ◽  
Alexei Chechkin

Abstract We study a heterogeneous diffusion process with position-dependent diffusion coefficient and Poissonian stochastic resetting. We find exact results for the mean squared displacement and the probability density function. The nonequilibrium steady state reached in the long time limit is studied. We also analyze the transition to the non-equilibrium steady state by finding the large deviation function. We found that similarly to the case of the normal diffusion process where the diffusion length grows like $t^{1⁄2}$ while the length scale ξ(t) of the inner core region of the nonequilibrium steady state grows linearly with time t, in the heterogeneous diffusion process with diffusion length increasing like $t^{p⁄2}$ the length scale ξ(t) grows like $t^{p}$. The obtained results are verified by numerical solutions of the corresponding Langevin equation.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document