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2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Supat Chupradit ◽  
Indah Raya ◽  
Dinh Tran Ngoc Huy ◽  
Dmitry Bokov ◽  
Pham Van Tuan ◽  

In this work, the molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was applied to design a laminated composite structure comprised of the shape memory alloy (SMA) and Cu-Zr metallic glasses (MGs). A wide range of MG compositions was considered to tune the mechanical features and improve the homogenous plastic deformation during the tension loading. The results indicated that the martensitic transformation in the SMA inhibited the sudden shear band propagation in the composite for all the samples. Moreover, it was revealed that the mechanism of plasticity was significantly affected by the change of MG composition. In the Cu-rich MGs, the formation and propagation of thick shear bands occurred at the end of the tension loading; however, the increase in Zr content induced the interaction of multiple shear bands with finer configurations in the system. Nevertheless, the excessive Zr addition in the MG composition facilitated the aggregation of nanopores at the interface of SMA and MGs, which may be due to the softening effect in the Zr-rich MGs. Finally, it is concluded that an optimized MG composition is required for the trade-off between the plasticity and the strength in the SMA-MG composites.

Materials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (23) ◽  
pp. 7480
Shatumbu Thomas Alweendo ◽  
Motoaki Morita ◽  
Kayo Hasegawa ◽  
Shinichi Motoda

Since hot-dip galvanizing causes a heat effect on cold-worked steel substrate and produces a coating layer comprised of distinct phases with varying mechanical properties, the fatigue mechanism of hot-dip galvanized steel is very complex and hard to clarify. In this study, AISI 1020 steel that has been normalized to minimize susceptibility to the heat effect was used to clarify the effect of the galvanizing layer on the tensile and fatigue properties. The galvanizing layer causes a reduction in the yield point, tensile strength, and fatigue strength. The reduction in the fatigue strength was more significant in the high cycle fatigue at R = 0.5 and 0.01 and in the low cycle fatigue at R = 0.5. The galvanizing layer seems to have very little effect on the fatigue strength at R = −1.0 in the low and high cycle fatigue. Since the fatigue strengths at R = 0.01 and −1.0 in the low cycle fatigue were strongly related to the tensile strength of the substrate, the cracking of galvanized steel was different than that of non-galvanized steel. The fatigue strength of galvanized steel at R = 0.5 dropped remarkably in the low cycle fatigue in comparison to the non-galvanized steel, and many cracks clearly occurred in the galvanizing layer. The galvanizing layer reduced the fatigue strength only under tension–tension loading. We believe that the findings in this study will be useful in the fatigue design of hot-dip galvanized steel.

2021 ◽  
Emanuel Mariano Zara ◽  
Santiago Javier Grittini ◽  
Gonzalo Rodriguez Jordan ◽  
Leandro Perello ◽  
Mattew Sanders

Abstract Objectives/Scope During casing installation and drilling operations, Oil Country Tubular Goods (OCTG) strings are often rotated inside deviated wellbores, generating cyclic bending loading that could lead to fatigue damage. This phenomenon has been previously studied and understood. The completion of multistage fractured horizontal wells (MFHW) involves tens of fracture operations (an ever growing number) as part of the stimulation program in order to maximize production. These fracture operations involve a combination of cyclic pressures and tension loading in the production casing, through which they are conducted, with maximum loads often repeatedly reaching the upper limit of the pipe body performance ratings. This process of cyclic pressure and tension loading near the upper limit of the pipe body performance is the subject of this work. In unconventional plays, where MFHW are the standard approach, both cyclic bending due to rotation and cyclic burst and tension due to multiple fracturing operations are applied on OCTG strings. This combination may lead to a failure mode in which a crack opens due to material fatigue during rotation or fracturing cycles, and subsequently propagates (to failure) during the demanding fracturing stages. Methods, Procedures, Process As it would be expected during any technological evolution, the industry has seen an increase in casing failures during hydraulic fracturing, often not explainable by the current understanding of loads scenarios present in wellbores. Some of these events could be associated to the failure mode described above. Despite the potential risk introduced by this failure mode, to date, there is no standardized testing methodology available to evaluate the resistance of pipes and connections to this loading sequence. Results, Observations, Conclusions In order to cover this gap, a testing sequence aimed at replicating actual operating conditions was developed and deployed by the authors. This includes evaluating the resistance of a premium connection to rotation through a curved hole, and subsequent burst and tension cycles. The methodology and results are presented in this paper. Novel/Additive Information Through this testing approach, operators, manufacturers, and laboratories alike, can ensure the performance and reliability of OCTG, which are key elements in the well construction process. As main observations, all tested specimens successfully passed this very demanding testing sequence, aimed to replicate operative conditions during installation and subsequent stimulation operation.

Guo Zheng ◽  
Zengqiang Cao ◽  
Duquan Zuo ◽  
Yuejie Cao

The decrease of stress amplitude is generally believed as the mechanism of fatigue life enhancement in interference fit joints under cyclic loading for each load cycle. In order to exactly estimate it, a new analytical model was presented. In this model, influences of mass, geometry, and plastic deformation are considered to modify and improve the spring model, and, moreover, the stress amplitude at the smallest crossing section is investigated. Taking these factors into account, stress amplitude decrease of various interference values can be calculated more accurately; therefore, the analytical solutions have good agreement with the finite element numerical and experimental results under different interference values and load levels. The analytical model indicates that the decrease ratio of stress amplitude is of a certain value for a specific interference value with the external load under the critical value. Furthermore, the decrease ratio of stress amplitude mainly depends on the stiffness of the pin and plate, which is mostly affected by the geometric shapes and plastic deformation ranges of the pin and plate. In addition, raising the interference value leads to larger stress amplitude reduction since the plastic deformation areas expand with the increment of interference values.

Metals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (5) ◽  
pp. 767
Yazhi Zhu ◽  
Shiping Huang ◽  
Hizb Sajid

This paper aims to (1) study ductile fracture behavior, and (2) provide a computational tool for predicting fracture initiation in ASTM A572 Gr. 50 structural steels under axisymmetric tension loading are heated to elevated temperatures and cooled down in air and in water. Employing the post-fire test results reported in the literature for A572 Gr. 50 steels, this paper carries out coupon-level finite element (FE) simulations to capture the stress and strain fields and explore the micro-mechanism of post-fire fracture in ASTM A572 Gr. 50 steels, respectively. Numerical results show that the effects of the experienced temperature and cooling method on fracture parameters are more significant for the steels cooled after being heated to temperatures from 800 °C to 1000 °C than those from 500 °C to 700 °C, due to microstructural changes during the cooling process. Air-cooled and water-cooled specimens show an improvement and a significant reduction in ductility, respectively. A modified void growth model (VGM) is proposed by introducing two additional temperature-dependent functions, through which the effects of elevated temperature and cooling method on fracture behavior are quantitatively analyzed. Limitations of this study are also discussed.

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