In order to improve mechanical properties of fly ash/slag concrete with large size cobble as coarse aggregate, this paper analyzes the effect of different factors on the concrete through the flexural strength test. The Monte Carlo simulation is used in the finite element solver of ANSYS to conduct the four-point bending beam test. Three-dimensional and two-dimensional finite element models are established to discuss how the gradation of large size cobbles affects the performance of the concrete by comparing macromechanical experiments. Results show that the gradation of large size cobbles is the main factor affecting the performance of the concrete. Slag generates the least effect on the concrete with cobble as coarse aggregate. When the mixing amount of slag and fly ash is 10%, the concrete presents the best flexural performance. Through the numerical loading test of the two-dimensional model for fly ash/slag concrete with cobble as coarse aggregate, it can be concluded that the change of the concrete follows the law of macromechanical properties.
The diabetic wound is the most challenging one to manage, which is associated with microvascular and macrovascular dysfunction, and novel strategies such as using hydrogels demonstrate their promising prospect in treatment and management approaches of the diabetic wound. This study aimed to investigate the effect of collagen/nanoclay/tadalafil hydrogel on wound healing in diabetic rats under HIIT exercise. Hydrogel was synthesized, and then biocompatibility and antibacterial tests were performed. The therapeutic effect of collagen/nanoclay/tadalafil hydrogel was assessed after induction of diabetes in the rat model, and wound healing was evaluated with macroscopic and microscopic tests. The result of the MTT test showed no significant cytotoxicity of collagen/nanoclay/tadalafil hydrogel. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of hydrogel was detected on E. coli and S. aureus. The macroscopic results demonstrated that the wound contraction was considerable in the hydrogel/HIIT exercise and hydrogel groups compared with the HIIT exercise and control groups during 21 days. The microscopic results showed that the presence of fibroblasts, the amount of collagen, the epidermis density, and the formation of hair follicles were increased in the hydrogel/HIIT exercise group compared with other groups in the diabetic rate model. It can be concluded that collagen/nanoclay/tadalafil hydrogel with HIIT exercise could accelerate diabetic wound healing and can be an appropriate candidate for skin regeneration in medical applications.
Numerous works are reported in literature regarding the enhancement of compressive strength of fly ash-GGBS geopolymer combinations with addition of alkali activators of varying concentrations. However, a limited study has been chronicled, revealing the specific role of alkali or alkaline earth contributed by the fly ash-GGBS combinations on the compressive strength development. It is well known that the strength of a geopolymer is dependent on gel formation from Al/Si ratio, Ca/Si ratio, and Ca/(Si + Al) ratio but their exact role when cured for various extended periods is unknown as yet. In the present study, alkali concentration in a fly ash-GGBS geopolymer combination was varied from 6 M to 12 M with increments of two mol in six different fly ash-GGBS combinations with a minimum of 20 percent and a maximum of 70 percent GGBS. The correlation coefficients between compressive strength and Al/Si, Ca/Si, and Ca/(Si + Al) ratios exhibited values higher than 0.95 taken individually. Multiple linear regression analysis with compressive strength (as dependent parameter) and individual values of Al/Si, Ca/Si, and Ca/(Si + Al) ratios (as independent parameters) was effectuated. It was observed that, depending on the composition, the compressive strength circumstantiated a changeover from Ca/Si to Ca/(Si + Al) ratio in the intermediate composition range. Such a detailed analysis is considered supportive of developing a suitable composition which will provide the optimum compressive strength of the combination.
Biomass energy accounts for more than 92 percent of overall energy consumption in Ethiopia. As a result, Ethiopia is one of the world’s most biomass-dependent countries. The high reliance on wood fuels and agricultural residues for fuel harms society’s social, economic, and environmental well-being. This study aims to create and test the quality of fuel briquettes made from the coffee husk. Also built and produced are a carboniser/charcoal kiln, a manually operated molder system, and a briquette stove for burning the manufactured briquette. The carboniser converts 15 kg of raw coffee husk into 6 kg of carbonised char in 25 minutes, and the manually operated briquette molder can press 30 kg per hour. The efficiency of converting raw coffee husk into carbonised char content was 40.12%. In the geological survey of Ethiopia, the geochemical laboratory directorate received triplicate samples of the fuel briquette charcoal for analysis. Moisture content, fixed carbon content, ash content, sulfur content, and calorific value were determined using a bomb calorimeter and a ceramic lining furnace. Physical properties of fuel briquettes ranged from 10.03% moisture content, 970 kg/m3 density, 81% fixed carbon, 5.15% ash content, 0% sulfur, and 30.54 Kcal/kg higher heating value, according to laboratory results. The results of the study revealed that the coffee husk fuel briquettes produced have more positive characteristics. Fuel briquettes were cost-effective and environmentally friendly and reduced deforestation compared to firewood. This study clearly shows that briquettes made from coffee husk could be used as an alternative energy source when this kind of waste is well managed.
Under the repeated action of traffic and thermal loads, a cement concrete pavement slab may partially lose contact with its base course, and voids may develop underneath the slab. Such distress will greatly impact the pavement performance. To fill the voids and restore the base support to the slab, the technology of polymer grouting has been increasingly adopted in recent years due to its advantages of quick application and high efficiency. There is, however, a lack of research on the mechanistic responses and performance of such a repaired rigid pavement under coupled influences of thermal and traffic loads. Existing literature has mainly focused on normal cement concrete pavement structures (i.e., without polymer grouted voids). This study intends to fill the research gap by investigating the time-domain characteristics of thermal stress response of a cement concrete pavement with underlying voids filled with polymer grout, along with design traffic loads. The finite element method was adopted with a 3-dimensional nonlinear temperature field within the pavement. A program module was developed in the Abaqus FEA software environment for temperature effect analysis. It was found that under the coupling action of thermal and traffic loads, thermal stress had a greater influence on the critical slab stress at the slab corner than those at other slab locations. Through the comparative analysis before and after polymer grouting repair, the critical tensile stress at the slab corner under the vehicle and thermal loads can be effectively reduced. The polymer performance is stable after three years.
In this paper, the interface microstructure, elements’ diffusion features at the interface, and bonding properties in nickel-based alloy/carbon steel clad composite prepared by vacuum hot-roll bonding were investigated, comprehensively. The influence of element distribution on the interface bonding strength was revealed as well. The results showed that there was a 13 μm thick diffusion layer at the interface of nickel-based alloy/carbon steel composite plate, which was beneficial to a strong bond between nickel-based alloy and carbon steel, as well as the stable transition of mechanical properties in the thickness direction. Kirkendall voids and fine-grained structure (the grain size is about 41.5 nm) were observable by peeling off the nickel-based alloy cladding, which greatly promoted element diffusion and enhanced the interfacial bonding strength of the nickel-based alloy/carbon steel composite plate. The diffusion coefficient of Ni at the interface was about 2 orders of magnitude larger than that of nanocrystalline Fe. The shear strength reached up to 453 MPa, which was much higher than the minimum of 140 MPa defined in ASTM A-264 specifications. Furthermore, in the shear test, the fracture occurred on the X52 carbon steel side at the contact rather than at the composite plate interface.
This paper considers the Holzapfel–Ogden (HO) model to examine the behavior of the left ventricle myocardium. At the tissue level, we analyze the contributions of the orientation angle of muscle fibers (MFs) and investigate their effects on the occurrence of certain cardiomyopathies and congenital diseases at the organ level. Knowing the importance of myocardial microstructure on cardiac function, we vary the angle between the direction of collagen sheets and MFs in all layers of the myocardium (from epicardium to endocardium) to model the effects of tilted MFs. Based on the HO model in which the directions of the fibers are orthogonal and using the strain energy of HO, we construct a tensile-compression test and simulate the dynamics of a cubic sample. We recover the authors’ results exhibiting the existence of residual stresses in various directions. Then, we modify the energy of HO slightly to assess the impact of the same stress states on the system with tilted MFs. A numerical tensile-compression test performed on this new cubic sample shows that, in certain directions, the heart tissue is more resistant to shear deformations in some planes than in others. Moreover, it appears that the residual stress is smaller as the angle of orientation of the MFs is small. Furthermore, we observe that the residual stress is greater in the new model compared to the normal HO model. This could affect the heart muscle at the organ level leading to hypertrophied/dilated cardiomyopathy.
The content of titanium is about 0.63% in the earth’s crust, and it ranks 10th among all elements. The content of titanium is next to the metal elements of aluminum, iron and magnesium, iron, and magnesium; titanium alloys have low density, high specific strength (the ratio of tensile strength to density), wide working range (−253°C–600°C), and excellent corrosion resistance melting point; the chemical activity of titanium alloy is very high, and it easily reacts with hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen, so it is difficult to be smelted and processed, and the processing cost is high. Titanium alloys also have poor thermal conductivity (only 1/5 of iron and 1/15 of aluminum), small deformation coefficient, large friction coefficient, and other characteristics. They are widely used in aircraft fuselage, gas turbine, petrochemical, automotive industry, medical, and other fields for important parts.
In this study, NACA0018 airfoil surface conformity test was conducted using API tracker3 in combination with SpatialAnalyzer (SA) and modeling software SolidWorks. Plaster of Paris is used as a plug making material and a woven-type fiberglass is used as mold and airfoil surface making material. For airfoil surface analysis, three-dimensional model of the airfoil surface was developed in SolidWorks software and imported in IGES file format to SpatialAnalyzer (SA) software. Then, measurements were taken from manufactured airfoil surface using laser tracker through surface scanning method. Surface conformity test was conducted through fitting of measured points to surface model imported from SolidWorks to SpatialAnalyzer (SA) software. The optimized fit summary result shows that the average fit difference is 0.0 having standard deviation from 0.22224 from the average and zero with RMS of 0.2210. The maximum magnitude of the difference including x and y together is 0.5336 and the minimum −0.5077. Thus, with a given range of surface quality specification, laser tracker is an easy and reliable measurement and inspection tool to be considered.
In order to study the influence of elevation on the slake durability index of the quartz mica schist, the quartz mica schist with different elevations on the east slope of the Manjiazhai open-pit mine is taken as the research object, and based on laboratory tests and statistical analysis, the variation of negative correlation between the slake durability index and elevation is obtained. The disintegration mechanism of quartz mica schist at different elevations is also discussed. The test results show that the disintegration characteristics of quartz mica schist at different elevations are related to its mineral composition, fissure channel size, and rock damage effect. As the slope height increases, the ratio of mica to quartz in the rock increases, and the greater the porosity of the rock, the more fissures in the rock, the greater the permeability coefficient, and the more obvious the change of effective stress of rock under osmotic pressure. At the same time, the higher the slope elevation of open-pit mine, the longer the weathering time of rock, the higher the cumulative damage of rock, and the lower the rock slake durability index. This study provides a new idea for guiding the research on the disintegration characteristics of similar soft rock slopes in the elevation direction.