The Third Person
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AbstractThe alveolar fricative occurs in word-final position in English in different grammatical functions. Nominal suffixes may indicate plurality (e.g. cars), genitive case (e.g. car’s) or plurality and genitive case in cumulation (e.g. cars’). Further, there are the third person singular verbal suffix (e.g. she fears) and the cliticized forms of the third person singular forms of have and be (e.g. she’s been lucky; she’s friendly). There is also non-affixal s (e.g. freeze (noun)). Against the standard view that all these types are homophonous, several empirical studies have shown that at least some of the fricatives listed can actually be differentiated in their duration. The present article expands this line of research and considers a further case, which has not been included in previous analyses: pluralia-tantum nouns (e.g. goggles). We report on a carefully controlled reading study in which native speakers of British English produced pluralia-tantum and comparable regular-plural nouns (e.g. toggles). The duration of the word-final fricative was measured, and it was found that the two do not systematically differ in this acoustic parameter. The new data are interpreted in comparison to relevant previous studies, and against the background of the similarities of pluralia-tantum and regular-plural nouns.
Abstract In Bregagliotto and Mesolcinese, two Lombard Alpine dialects, feminine plural agreement/concord is marked by the formative -n, a reflex of the third person plural verbal ending. In Bregagliotto, plural -n triggers mesoclisis of the feminine subject clitic in contexts of inversion, whereas in the noun phrase -n behaves as a second-position element marking plural feminine concord. Mesolcinese exhibits verbal gender agreement as the formative -n occurs on the inflected verb whenever a feminine plural subject or the feminine plural object clitic occurs; in feminine plural DPs, -n is attached to any element except the definite article. I argue that the Bregagliotto system emerged when -n was reanalysed as an adjunct pluraliser, whereas in Mesolcinese -n has been turned into a marker of morphophonological concord/agreement.
"Mind-body integration is a key element for a successful dance movement therapy (DMT). As the connection between mind and body is reconnected, the clients can not only express but also improve their mental state through body movement. The integration of mind and body can be viewed from to aspects, namely the first-person experience and the third-person phenomenon, both of which play a crucial role in the therapeutic process of DMT. The first-person experience transcends the mind’s neurobiological phenomenon, which is relatively more important for the clients, while the third-person observation is based on the body’s reflection of mind, often adopted by the therapists. The relationship between mind and body can be validated by the mirror neuron theory, which is one of the theoretical proofs and inspirations of DMT. Unlike the notion of mind-body differentiation in western classical philosophy, ancient Chinese thoughts had not separated them. The Chinese character “shen” is considered as the whole of flesh and soul. The abundant Chinese thoughts concerning mind-body theory can be considered as a suitable route of the exploration of mind-body integration."
Enhancing Virtual Walking Sensation Using Self-Avatar in First-Person Perspective and Foot Vibrations
Walking is a fundamental physical activity in humans. Various virtual walking systems have been developed using treadmill or leg-support devices. Using optic flow, foot vibrations simulating footsteps, and a walking avatar, we propose a virtual walking system that does not require limb action for seated users. We aim to investigate whether a full-body or hands-and-feet-only walking avatar with either the first-person (experiment 1) or third-person (experiment 2) perspective can convey the sensation of walking in a virtual environment through optic flows and foot vibrations. The viewing direction of the virtual camera and the head of the full-body avatar were linked to the actual user's head motion. We discovered that the full-body avatar with the first-person perspective enhanced the sensations of walking, leg action, and telepresence, either through synchronous or asynchronous foot vibrations. Although the hands-and-feet-only avatar with the first-person perspective enhanced the walking sensation and telepresence, compared with the no-avatar condition, its effect was less prominent than that of the full-body avatar. However, the full-body avatar with the third-person perspective did not enhance the sensations of walking and leg action; rather, it impaired the sensations of self-motion and telepresence. Synchronous or rhythmic foot vibrations enhanced the sensations of self-motion, waking, leg action, and telepresence, irrespective of the avatar condition. These results suggest that the full-body or hands-and-feet avatar is effective for creating virtual walking experiences from the first-person perspective, but not the third-person perspective, and that the foot vibrations simulating footsteps are effective, regardless of the avatar condition.
The aim of the article is to examine the semantic and syntactic properties of modal words in German. The paper analyzes the types of modal semantics which are encoded in modal words; the peculiarities of the syntactic use of modal words are shown; the relationship between the type of modal semantics and their syntactic use is revealed, and the question which words with evaluative semantics can be classified as modal is considered. The relevance of this kind of work is determined by the following circumstances: firstly, it is necessary to describe the syntax and the semantics of modal words and their grammar features; secondly, it is important to reveal the relationship between modality and evaluativity and, thirdly, to define the conditions under which modal words can encode not one but several modal meanings. By using the transformation method and the method of component analysis the following groups of modal words were identified: modal words with alethic semantics; modal words with epistemic semantics; modal words with evidential semantics. Some modal words build separate groups: The modal word angeblich has evidential semantics, because it indicates the third person as a source of information; the modal word wahrscheinlich can have epistemic or evidential or alethic and evidential semantics; the modal word leider is able to express an emotional attitude of the speaker. The identification of different types of modal words is possible through the research of their syntactic properties, namely: the usage in dependent object clauses with the epistemic and factive predicate in the matrix clause; in conditional sentences as well as the ability to have independent usage as an answer to a question without a question word.
This essay argues for the power of free indirect discourse in the third-person narrative perspective to serve as a collective voice, encompassing a diversity of perspectives, through a reading of two novels by Olga Tokarczuk, Bieguni (Flights) and Księgi Jakubowe (Books of Jacob). Both novels investigate the challenges inherent in the project of providing an image of the world, and alongside various interventions on the level of content, each examines the kind of world-image that different approaches to narrative voice can produce. In Flights, the narrator's striving to arrive at a more expansive and synthetic knowledge of the world is accompanied by an effort to go beyond the first-person voice, to a broader perspective. The novel subtly demonstrates the impossibility of such efforts, but, the essay argues, Books of Jacob continues this project, albeit from the opposite direction, examining the affordances of the third-person voice. Its innovative use of free indirect discourse produces a perspective that, while appearing to be a single voice, contains multiple, contradictory points of view.
The research sets out to investigate positive evaluation in the English ВіЬІе text. We focus on lexicо-semantic peculiarities of evaluative sentences with the deictic markers of the third person being used to manifest "alien" space. For this we consider the category of "one’s own" / "alien", which is closely related to deixis and evaluation, single out the main features of the phenomenon and determine the rate of third person’s positive evaluation in the text. As a result of the lexicо-semantic analysis we can assert that positive qualities of the "alien" world and manifestation of the speaker’s positive attitude to it are in the focus in the English Bible text. Other varieties of onomasiological features (negative state, status) are characterized by a low frequency of manifestation, which suggests the idea that the most important parameters that determine positive evaluation are positive actions and qualities corresponding to the universally accepted ethical norms. In a number of cases the personal pronoun he is used to indicate a certain referent (God), as a result, acquires positive evaluation. In this case he develops the expression of amplification and positive evaluation and means "the one". On the other hand, the personal pronoun they in most cases refers to strangers, people of other religions having negative evaluation. The positive evaluation of the third-person world can be verbalized metaphorically. Thus, the Lord God in the text is referred to such positive notions with the meaning of protection and salvation as "Salvation", "The Rock", "our help and our shield", "my defense", "the horn of my salvation", "my high tower", "a restorer of thy life", "a buckler". We see prospects for further study in the research of syntactic and communicative-pragmatic characteristics of "one's own"/ "alien" space as well as in the study of local and temporal markers of evaluation. Special consideration can also be given to analyzing this problem in texts of other functional styles, as well as shifting the focus of research to the field of cognitive linguistics.
Narrar e ser: a pessoalidade do narrador de Eu receberia as piores notícias de seus lindos lábios / Narrating and Being: The Us Narrator’s Personality Eu receberia as piores notícias de seus lindos lábios
Resumo: A história do romance viu, diante de si, formas diversas de narrar, conforme aponta os escritos de Theodor W. Adorno, por exemplo. Desde narradores impessoais, mantendo a distância segura que lhe confere a narrativa em terceira pessoa até os casos em que o que se narra é algo diretamente relacionado ao próprio narrador. Esse parece ser o caso do romance de Marçal Aquino, Eu receberia as piores notícias de seus lindos lábios, que conta o envolvimento amoroso de Cauby e Lavínia a partir do olhar do próprio Cauby. Esse narra de um modo cuja relação de si mesmo com a narrativa fica explícita, tamanha é sua passionalidade em relação às suas vivências e ao ato de narrar. Isso se manifesta tanto na linguagem, em termos de escolhas narrativas, quanto nas ações do narrador-personagem-protagonista que narra e vive aquilo que narra. Suas características mais notáveis são a passionalidade, a capacidade de registrar fotograficamente detalhes da narrativa e o rompimento com técnicas narrativas tradicionais.Palavras-chave: narrador; primeira pessoa; romance brasileiro contemporâneo; Eu receberia as piores notícias de seus lindos lábios.Abstract: The history of the novel saw, before it, different ways of narrating, as pointed out by the writings of Theodor W. Adorno, for example. From impersonal narrators, maintaining the safe distance that the third person narrative gives him until the cases in which what is narrated is something directly related to the narrator himself. This seems to be the case with Marçal Aquino’s novel I would receive the worst news from his beautiful lips, which tells of Cauby and Lavínia’s loving involvement from the point of view of Cauby himself. He narrates in a way whose relationship with himself and the narrative is explicit, such is his passion for his experiences and the act of narrating. This manifests itself both in language, in terms of narrative choices, and in the actions of the narrator-character-protagonist who narrates and experiences what he narrates. Its most notable characteristics are passionality, the ability to photographically record details of the narrative and break with traditional narrative techniques.Keywords: narrator; first person; contemporary Brazilian romance; Eu receberia as piores notícias de seus lindos lábios.