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Nature ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 598 (7881) ◽  
pp. 415-415
Sandersan Onie ◽  
Ashra Daswin

2021 ◽  
Victoria Susana Fusé ◽  
Carla Sofia Stadler ◽  
Natasha Picone ◽  
Santiago Linares ◽  
Sergio Alejandro Guzman ◽  

Abstract There is an overall trend in urban methane (CH4) emissions due to the presence of several sources; however, differences exist between cities, and therefore further local research should be undertaken. The present study analyzes the spatiotemporal variation in atmospheric CH4 concentrations during a year at ten sampling sites in the urban core of a medium-sized city. The mean annual atmospheric CH4 concentrations varied between 2.02 ppm and 5.45 ppm; the maximum concentrations were found in a site close to a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), presenting a significant increase toward the summer. In the rest of the sites, the maximum concentrations were recorded in the coldest months due to the influence of combustion sources dependent on natural gas (NG). An exploratory regression analysis was performed, in which the variables “homes connected to the gas network” and “distance from compressed NG stations” each explained 66 and 65% of the spatial variation of the atmospheric CH4 concentrations at the 9 sites (excluding that one nearest the WWTP). The results show the need to prevent NG leaks in all urban areas to reduce the emissions of this potent greenhouse gas, which, at the same time, will provide economic benefits for the sectors involved.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (2) ◽  
Peter Duker

As an emerging scholar committed to social justice and anti-oppressive praxis, I entered my master’s program in Geography at York University, Toronto, with the goal of contributing to new theoretical insights and meaningful outcomes for research participants in Thailand. While initially the concept of communityengaged research appeared to alleviate the tensions between these two goals, the realities of the university’s constraints on graduate student research coupled with those of the COVID-19 pandemic have made it clear that this endeavor would not be straightforward. The inherent messiness of balancing academic matters (e.g., contributing to new theory and demonstrating an adequate level of rigor) with social justice concerns (e.g., eliminating epistemological violence and contributing meaningful outcomes for research participants) in community-engaged research has only intensified as COVID-19 has reconfigured our social relations, exacerbating existing inequities and restricting our social mobility, particularly across international borders. In this reflection, I consider how remotely collaborating with local research assistants in my own graduate research project typifies these tensions. More specifically, I posit that the COVID-19 pandemic has further underscored the importance of researchers, particularly white men researchers such as myself, to be willing to consistently re-evaluate our projects, and embrace flexibility, accountability, and the removal of ego from our work.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (3Suppl) ◽  
pp. 17-20
Darisuren Namjil ◽  
Byambasuren Dagvajantsan ◽  
Oyuntugs Byambasukh

Cognitive impairment is commonly associated with older people. It can also occur in middle-aged people due to non-communicable diseases. The prevalence of lifestyle-related diseases (non-communicable diseases) has been rapidly increasing in Mongolia. Therefore, we aimed to overview these studies to identify whether the increasing prevalence of non-communicable disease is associated with the risks of cognitive impairment in Mongolians. Published literature between 01 January 1980 and 20 June 2021 were included in the study. We searched articles published in journals registered to PubMed and doctoral and master's dissertations registered in the Central Medical Library of Mongolia using the following keywords: "cognitive impairment", "dementia", "mild cognitive impairment", "Alzheimer", "vascular dementia", “diabetes", "Mongolia", "obesity", "stroke", "hypertension". While there were no internationally published articles in this field, seven studies were either published in local research journals or as doctoral or master’s dissertations. Although few studies have been conducted in Mongolia, people with lifestyle-related conditions such as hypertension and diabetes are strongly associated with a higher risk of cognitive impairment. The increasing prevalence of non-communicable diseases may be one of the factors contributing to the prevalence of vascular cognitive impairment.

2021 ◽  
Murat Syzdykov ◽  
Zhassulan Dairov ◽  
Jennifer Miskimins

Abstract Kazakhstan has set a lofty goal of becoming one of the world's top 30 developed countries by 2050. This can be accomplished by growing up well-versed, competent, and forward-thinking human capital. We previously discussed curriculum, courses, internships, and student development as part of the World Economic Forum (WEF) pilot project supported by Chevron, Eni, and Shell (Sponsors) to strengthen oil and gas human capital in Kazakhstan (SPE-195903 and SPE-201272). During regular visits, the WEF sponsors and Colorado School of Mines (Mines) could assess the Satbayev University (SU) PE department and underlined the importance of faculty growth. Academic workshops on topics such as course and syllabus design, student assessment, and ABET accreditation standards have been held both offline and online. Meanwhile, to advance the PE program, faculty research capacity must be globally competitive. To begin, the Kazakhstani government distributed visiting scholarship awards on behalf of the supporting World Bank in 2018. Shell Kazakhstan took the initiative and co-funded two PhD candidates so they could perform their research experiments at Pennsylvania State University (PennState). In addition, Mines has gone above and beyond the WEF scope by offering two fully-funded PhD scholarships to exceptional SU faculty. Through the newly constituted Industry-Advisory Board (IAB), the WEF Sponsors emphasized strong contact with the industry, which assisted in identifying a few research topics. These discussions resulted in formulation of four research proposals that were submitted to the Ministry of Education and Science Grants in 2020 and are being co-funded by Sponsors. This collaboration has yielded the approval of two projects by the State. Finally, under the auspices of the IAB meetings, the PE department has been offered opportunity to collaborate with the national KazMunayGas on the company-related project. While academic cooperation is well-known, research and its outcomes are even more critical in today's fast-changing environment. Universities must quickly adapt to industry best practices while remaining committed to their global mission of contributing to national growth and human potential. This paper discusses effective approaches for industry-academia collaboration.

Lynn Kettell ◽  
Mary R. O’Brien ◽  
Barbara A. Jack ◽  
Katherine Knighting

AbstractThis paper reports on a multi-phased, mixed-method consensus-based study conducted with young carers in the UK aged 11–18, and health, social care and education professionals from the UK, USA and Canada, to identify priority items for inclusion in a short screening tool for use with young carers of a family member with a progressive or long-term illness or disability. Following ethical approval from University and local Research Ethics Committees, qualitative and quantitative data were collected between 2017 and 2019 from 267 people (107 young carers; 160 professionals), through interviews, a focus group, a Delphi survey, consensus group meetings and consultations. Qualitative data were analysed thematically, and quantitative data were analysed using measures of central tendency, frequency and levels of dispersion. The resulting Carers’ Alert Thermometer (CAT-YC) contains an identification question followed by ten areas of need across two themes of ‘current caring situation’ and ‘carer’s health and wellbeing,’ along with guidance for possible next steps and space for an action plan to be jointly agreed between the screener and young carer. Preliminary piloting of the CAT-YC provides evidence of identifying and monitoring needs, and is expected to be useful for young carers, a wide range of professionals, and organisations that support young carers.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (3) ◽  
pp. p37
Aniba Israt Ara ◽  
Arshad Islam

Singapore in the Malay Peninsula was targeted by the British East India Company (EIC) to be the epicentre of their direct rule in Southeast Asia. Seeking new sources of revenue at the end of the 18th century, after attaining domination in India, the Company sought to extend its reach into China, and Malaya was the natural region to do this, extending outposts to Penang and Singapore. The latter was first identified as a key site by Stamford Raffles. The EIC Governor General Marquess Hastings (r. 1813-1823) planned to facilitate Raffle’s attention on the Malay Peninsula from Sumatra. Raffles’ plan for Singapore was approved by the EIC’s Bengal Government. The modern system of administration came into the Straits Settlements under the EIC’s Bengal Presidency. In 1819 in Singapore, Raffles established an Anglo-Oriental College (AOC) for the study of Eastern languages, literature, history, and science. The AOC was intended firstly to be the centre of local research and secondly to increase inter-cultural knowledge of the East and West. Besides Raffles’ efforts, the EIC developed political and socio-economic systems for Singapore. The most important aspects of the social development of Singapore were proper accommodation for migrants, poverty eradication, health care, a new system of education, and women’s rights. The free trade introduced by Francis Light (and later Stamford Raffles) in Penang and Singapore respectively gave enormous opportunities for approved merchants to expand their commerce from Burma to Australia and from Java to China. Before the termination of the China trade in 1833 Singapore developed tremendously, and cemented the role of the European trading paradigm in the East.

2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (3) ◽  
pp. 2469
Kian K. Kong ◽  
Siew C. Ong ◽  
Guat S. Ooi ◽  
Mohamed A. Hassali

Background: The clinical pharmacy service to the ward was established in 2005 in Malaysia, as the number of pharmacists working in the public service sector began to grow. Yet, there has been little local research done on reporting the range of work activities of clinical pharmacists and the amount of time that they spent on their work activities. Objective: This study aimed to identify the range of work activities of clinical pharmacists by observation and to estimate the proportion of time spent on different work activities by using the work sampling technique. Methods: The time spent by clinical pharmacists on various activities was measured using the work sampling technique over 30 working days. The work activities of clinical pharmacists were pre-identified and customized into an activity checklist. Two observers were placed at the study site and took turns recording the activities performed by the clinical pharmacists by following a randomly generated observation schedule. Results: 1,455 observations were made on five clinical pharmacists with a total of 3493 events recorded. Overall, clinical pharmacists spent 78.8% (n=2751) of their time providing clinical services whereas 12.3% (n=433) of their time was spent on non-clinical activities. They were found to be idle from work for 8.9% of the time. There was no difference in bed occupancy rate in the study site regardless of the presence of the observer (p=0.384). Clinical pharmacists were found to report a higher average daily cumulative work unit of 9.8 (SD=4.3) when under observation compared to an average daily cumulative work unit of 6.5 (SD=4.6) when no observer was present (p=0.005). Conclusions: The results revealed that clinical pharmacists spent a significant amount of time on non-clinical work. Their responsibilities with non-clinical work should be properly taken care of so they can allocate more time to providing patient care.

2021 ◽  
Vol 62 (3) ◽  
pp. 276-289
Ericka Saravia-Hernández ◽  
José Salvador-Carrillo ◽  
Alejandra Zevallos ◽  
Jorge Calderón-Ticona

Diabetic foot (DF) is one of the main complications responsible for the significant deterioration of the quality of life in diabetic patients, particularly, in developing countries. In Peru, 18.9% of diabetic inpatients present DF and 61% develop a foot sepsis. Therefore, the burden of DF is considerable in the country. In this work, we summarize the current scientific evidence of DF in the Peruvian population describing its epidemiology, risk factors, increase of time of hospitalization, bacterial resistance, rate of amputations, and the theoretical medical costs for disease management. According to the reviewed literature, we suggest that more local research should be conducted to better understand the impact of the DF on the Peruvian population.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (8) ◽  
pp. 4121-4132
Petra Zemunik ◽  
Jadranka Šepić ◽  
Havu Pellikka ◽  
Leon Ćatipović ◽  
Ivica Vilibić

Abstract. Sea-level observations provide information on a variety of processes occurring over different temporal and spatial scales that may contribute to coastal flooding and hazards. However, global research on sea-level extremes is restricted to hourly datasets, which prevent the quantification and analyses of processes occurring at timescales between a few minutes and a few hours. These shorter-period processes, like seiches, meteotsunamis, infragravity and coastal waves, may even dominate in low tidal basins. Therefore, a new global 1 min sea-level dataset – MISELA (Minute Sea-Level Analysis) – has been developed, encompassing quality-checked records of nonseismic sea-level oscillations at tsunami timescales (T<2 h) obtained from 331 tide-gauge sites (https://doi.org/10.14284/456, Zemunik et al., 2021b). This paper describes data quality control procedures applied to the MISELA dataset, world and regional coverage of tide-gauge sites, and lengths of time series. The dataset is appropriate for global, regional or local research of atmospherically induced high-frequency sea-level oscillations, which should be included in the overall sea-level extremes assessments.

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