energy strategies
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2022 ◽  
Vol 305 ◽  
pp. 114364
Yunfeng Huang ◽  
Chuan Zhao ◽  
Bing Gao ◽  
Shijun Ma ◽  
Qiumeng Zhong ◽  

Endocrinology ◽  
2021 ◽  
Adriana Maggi

Abstract The number of studies underlying major sex differences in liver metabolic activities is growing, but we still lack a theory to explain the origin of the functional differences we are identifying. In the animal kingdom energy metabolism is tightly associated with reproduction; conceivably, the major evolutionary step that occurred about 200 millions of years ago with placentation determined a significant change in female physiology as females had to create new energy strategies to allow the growth of the embryo in the mother womb and the lactation of the new-born. In vertebrates the liver is the metabolic organ most tuned to gonadal functions because the liver synthesizes and transports of all the components necessary for the maturation of the egg upon estrogenic stimulation. Thus in mammals evolution must have worked on the already strict gonad-liver relationship fostering the novel reproductive needs. As a consequence, the functions of mammalian liver had to diverge from males to acquire the flexibility necessary to tailor metabolism on the reproductive status and to ensure the parsimonious exploitation and storage of energy supplies for the continuation of gestation in case of food scarcity. Indeed, several studies show that male and female livers adopt very different strategies when confronted with nutritional stress of varied origin. Considering the role of liver and energy metabolism in most pathologies, a better focus on liver functions in the two sexes might be of considerable help in personalizing medicine and pharmacology on male and female needs.

2021 ◽  
pp. 100136
Attila Aszódi ◽  
Bence Biró ◽  
László Adorján ◽  
Ádám Csaba Dobos ◽  
Gergely Illés ◽  

2021 ◽  
Hilma Salonen

The Russian renewable energy industry has not yet succeeded in breaking through into the domestic market despite its potential, particularly in remote Arctic settlements. This article examines broad issues that influence national policy-makers and provides an analysis of the type of objectives that are emphasized in Russian energy policies. It can be assumed that the priorities behind these objectives have a more stable status than more concrete plans to boost the use of renewables, since they often fail to materialize. In order to discover these priorities, I analyze several relevant policy-making documents with the help of public justification analysis, a method developed to examine public claims made in favor of a certain cause, and the commonly known values that the claim-makers refer to in order to convince others. This paper reveals that Russian energy policy documents tend to emphasize concrete, technical tasks over more abstract, holistic goals. In addition, industrial needs dominate all policies, even those related to socio-economic or environmental issues. I conclude that the tendencies listed above may prevent fundamental structural change in the Russian energy industry, despite the potential of renewable energy, especially in the Arctic regions.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-17
Andreas Poullikkas

The present perspective aims to record the main actions that Cyprus, as a case study, needs to carry out in order to draw up a comprehensive long–term sustainable energy strategy for its transition from carbon economy to hydrogen economy. A brief description of the European sustainable energy strategy up to 2050 is provided. A transition to hydrogen economy by 2050, focusing on the importance of electricity interconnections including Cyprus’ crucial role with respect to the transition of Southeastern Mediterranean countries to hydrogen economy and how they could become energy exporters to Europe is discussed. Last but not least, this perspective presents the framework for drafting a long–term energy strategy for Cyprus and provides a set of targets for Cyprus’ energy transition to hydrogen economy by the year 2050

Energies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (16) ◽  
pp. 5175
Filip Božić ◽  
Daria Karasalihović Sedlar ◽  
Ivan Smajla ◽  
Ivana Ivančić

The main objective of the paper was comparative analyses of natural gas quantities delivered through the existing pipeline capacities in the last decade and new pipeline capacities for the prediction of possible future flows of gas import to Europe. Changes in physical flows have been influenced by European energy strategies that became green oriented resulting with a high amount of non-utilized transmission capacities. The research findings have shown that there is a significant decrease observed in transit of Russian gas through Ukraine in 2020 than previously. Concerning the high increase of LNG import to Europe in the same year, the start of operation of TurkStream, planned start of operation of Nord stream 2, authors project the gradual decrease of transit of Russian gas through Ukraine until the year 2025 with the total stop of transit of Russian gas until the year 2030. The change of supply routes will be also under the economic influence of low gas prices and coal and gas fuel switch until 2030 in the West EU, and after 2030 in the South Eastern European region. In the short-term period transit system for natural gas from Russia via Ukraine will be necessary for supplementing coal with natural gas in the energy mix.

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Yuwei Yin ◽  
Jasmine Siu Lee Lam

PurposeThis study aims at investigating how energy strategies of China impact its energy shipping import through a strategic maritime link, the Straits of Malacca and Singapore (SOMS).Design/methodology/approachVector error-correction modelling (VECM) is applied to examine the key energy strategies of China influencing crude oil and liquefied natural gas (LNG) shipping import via the SOMS. Strategies investigated include oil storage expansions, government-setting targets to motivate domestic gas production, pipeline projects to diversify natural gas import routes and commercial strategies to ensure oil and gas accessibility and cost-effectiveness.FindingsFor the crude oil sector, building up oil storage and diversifying oil import means, routes and sources were found effective to mitigate impacts of consumption surges and price shocks. For the LNG sector, domestic production expansion effectively reduces LNG import. However, pipeline gas import growth is inefficient to relieve LNG shipping import dependency. Furthermore, energy companies have limited flexibility to adjust LNG shipping import volumes via the SOMS even under increased import prices and transport costs.Practical implicationsAs the natural gas demand of China continues expanding, utilisation rates of existing pipeline networks need to be enhanced. Besides, domestic production expansion and diversification of LNG import sources and means are crucial.Originality/valueThis study is among the first in the literature using a quantitative approach to investigate how energy strategies implemented in a nation impact its energy shipping volumes via the SOMS, which is one of the most important maritime links that support 40% of the global trades.

Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (15) ◽  
pp. 4602
Carina A. Esteves Costa ◽  
Carlos A. Vega-Aguilar ◽  
Alírio E. Rodrigues

Lignin is the second most abundant component, next to cellulose, in lignocellulosic biomass. Large amounts of this polymer are produced annually in the pulp and paper industries as a coproduct from the cooking process—most of it burned as fuel for energy. Strategies regarding lignin valorization have attracted significant attention over the recent decades due to lignin’s aromatic structure. Oxidative depolymerization allows converting lignin into added-value compounds, as phenolic monomers and/or dicarboxylic acids, which could be an excellent alternative to aromatic petrochemicals. However, the major challenge is to enhance the reactivity and selectivity of the lignin structure towards depolymerization and prevent condensation reactions. This review includes a comprehensive overview of the main contributions of lignin valorization through oxidative depolymerization to produce added-value compounds (vanillin and syringaldehyde) that have been developed over the recent decades in the LSRE group. An evaluation of the valuable products obtained from oxidation in an alkaline medium with oxygen of lignins and liquors from different sources and delignification processes is also provided. A review of C4 dicarboxylic acids obtained from lignin oxidation is also included, emphasizing catalytic conversion by O2 or H2O2 oxidation.

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