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Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 378
Author(s):  
Maria Ramirez Prieto ◽  
Mylène Ratelle ◽  
Brian Douglas Laird ◽  
Kelly Skinner

A dietary transition away from traditional foods and toward a diet of the predominantly unhealthy market is a public health and sociocultural concern throughout Indigenous communities in Canada, including those in the sub-Arctic and remote regions of Dehcho and Sahtú of the Northwest Territories, Canada. The main aim of the present study is to describe dietary intakes for macronutrients and micronutrients in traditional and market food from the Mackenzie Valley study. We also show the trends of contributions and differences of dietary intakes over time from 1994 data collected and reported by the Centre for Indigenous People’s Nutrition and Environment (CINE) in 1996. Based on 24-h dietary recall data, the study uses descriptive statistics to describe the observed dietary intake of the Dene First Nations communities in the Dehcho and Sahtú regions of the NWT. Indigenous people in Canada, like the sub-Arctic regions of Dehcho and Sahtú of the NWT, continue to consume traditional foods, although as a small percentage of their total dietary intake. The observed dietary intake calls for action to ensure that traditional food remains a staple as it is critical for the wellbeing of Dene in the Dehcho and Sahtú regions and across the territory.


Land ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 105
Author(s):  
Evdokia Burtseva ◽  
Anatoliy Sleptsov ◽  
Anna Bysyina ◽  
Alla Fedorova ◽  
Gavril Dyachkovski ◽  
...  

The Republic of Sakha (Yakutia; RS(Y)) is located in the northeast of Siberia (Russia) in the basins of the Lena, Yana, and Indigirka rivers, in the lower reaches of the Kolyma River. Yakutia is an industrial–agrarian republic with a developed mining, fuel, and energy industry. Indigenous peoples live mainly in the Arctic regions, where the large-scale development of mineral resources is planned, and South Yakutia, where the mining industry is well developed. The aim of this study is the development of methodological approaches to assessing the impact of the mining industry on the natural environment and the social sphere in the places of residence and traditional economic activities of the indigenous peoples of the North. We used the results of research work (R&D), materials of expeditionary work, and regulatory documents of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) and the Russian Federation (RF). The state of the environment (ES) was assessed on the basis of the analysis of indicators for three areas: (a) anthropogenic load, (b) environmental and social consequences, and (c) resistance of natural complexes to technogenic impacts. In total, 22 indicators were used for the 3 areas, for example, population density, person/km2; the volume of extraction of rock mass, million m3; and emissions, t/year. To bring dissimilar indicators into comparable ones, we used a methodological approach with the use of the social risk index (SRI). In Arctic regions (mainly agricultural), the ES is in a favorable and relatively favorable state: SRI 0.61–0.70; in the central regions (mainly agricultural), it is satisfactory and relatively satisfactory: SRI 0.71–1.0; in the southern and western regions with a developed mining industry, it is relatively tense and tense: SRI 1.01–3.0. An extremely tense state of environmental conditions has developed in the city of Yakutsk: SRI ≥ 3. Generally, the deterioration of the environmental situation and vital activity of the indigenous peoples in investigated Arctic region correlated with the impact of the mining industry.


Public Health ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 1 (4) ◽  
pp. 49-55
Author(s):  
A. B. Gudkov ◽  
G. N. Degteva ◽  
O. A. Shepeleva

The Goal. To analyze the literature on the impact of high latitude climate on human health, as well as consider some aspects of adaptation to Arctic conditions and nutritional issues for the population and shift workers.Methods. Review of the articles placed in the bibliographic and abstract databases of VINITI, CyberLeninka, RSCI, Scopus, WoS, on the study of environmental and hygienic problems in the Arctic territories, where intense industrial activity is carried out. The following keywords were used: Arctic territories, adaptation, watch, food.Results. Long-term fundamental research has established that a complex of unfavorable and extreme natural and climatic factors in the Arctic causes two main syndromes in humans – “polar tension” and “northern tissue hypoxia”. Adaptation of new settlers in the Arctic territories proceeds in three stages. The duration of the shift period must have a physiological and hygienic justification and correspond to the duration of the period of stable working capacity. In high latitudes, it is especially important to develop diets and food products for various groups of the population and shift workers in relation to the specifics of their work in the Arctic regionsConclusions. Among the main environmental and hygienic problems of the Arctic territories, where intense industrial activity is carried out, it is necessary to highlight the tasks of scientific substantiation of rational modes of work and rest of workers in rotational forms of work. Also it’s necessary to define the quantitative and qualitative composition of food rations recommended for nutrition of various groups of the population, in relation to the specifics of production factors.


2022 ◽  
Vol 25 (8) ◽  
pp. 847-854
Author(s):  
M. V. Smolnikova ◽  
S. Yu. Tereshchenko

Lectins, being the main proteins of the lectin pathway activating the complement system, are encoded by polymorphic genes, wherein point mutations cause the protein conformation and expression to change, which turns out to have an effect on the functionality and ability to respond to the pathogen. In the current study, largescale data on the population genotype distribution of the genes for H-ficolin FCN3 rs28357092 and mannose-binding lectin-associated serine protease MASP2 rs72550870 among the indigenous peoples of the Russian Arctic regions (Nenets, Dolgans and Nganasans, a mixed population and Russians: a total sample was about 1000 newborns) have been obtained for the first time. Genotyping was carried out using RT-PCR. The frequency of the homozygous variant del/del FCN3 rs28357092 associated with the total absence of the most powerful activator of the lectin complement pathway, N-ficolin, was revealed; 0 % in the Nenets, 0.8 % in the Dolgans and Nganasans, and 3.5 % among the Russians ( p < 0.01). Analysis of the prevalence of the MASP2 genotypes has shown the predominance of the homozygous variant AA in all studied populations, which agrees with the available world data. The heterozygous genotype AG rs72550870 associated with a reduced level of protease was found to occur rarely in the Nenets, Dolgans and Nganasans compared to newborns of Caucasoid origin from Krasnoyarsk: 0.5 % versus 3.3 %, respectively. Moreover, among 323 examined Nenets, one AG carrier was identified, whereas in Russians, 16 out of 242 examined newborns were found to be AG carriers ( p < 0.001). A homozygous variant (GG) in total absence of protease with impaired binding of both MBL and ficolins was not detected in any of the 980 examined newborns. An additional analysis of infectious morbidity in Arctic populations allows one to find phenotypic characteristics related to a high functional activity of the lectin pathway of complement activation as an most important factor for the first-line of anti-infectious defense, including such new viral diseases as COVID-19.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Artem Lisachov ◽  
Lada Lisachova ◽  
Evgeniy Simonov

Ranaviruses are a group of double-strand DNA viruses that infect fish, amphibians and reptiles. These viruses are responsible for mass fish and amphibian mortality events worldwide, both in the wild and at the fish and amphibian farms. The number of detected epizootics has grown significantly in recent years. In Eastern Europe and Northern Asia, including Russia, very few ranavirosis monitoring studies have been conducted, in contrast with Western Europe and America. In the present work, we used a qPCR assay to survey for the first time the amphibian populations of West Siberia (Russia) for the presence of ranaviruses. In total, we studied 252 tissue samples from six amphibian species, collected across West Siberia from the south to the Arctic regions. We report a single infected sample: a common toad (Bufo bufo) captured near Tyumen city. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the detected virus strain belongs to the CMTV lineage. This is only the second observation of Ranavirus in Russia.


Genes ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 19
Author(s):  
Gregory A. Korfanty ◽  
Mykaelah Dixon ◽  
Haoran Jia ◽  
Heather Yoell ◽  
Jianping Xu

Aspergillus fumigatus is a saprophytic mold and an opportunistic pathogen with a broad geographic and ecological distribution. A. fumigatus is the most common etiological agent of aspergillosis, affecting over 8,000,000 individuals worldwide. Due to the rising number of infections and increasing reports of resistance to antifungal therapy, there is an urgent need to understand A. fumigatus populations from local to global levels. However, many geographic locations and ecological niches remain understudied, including soil environments from arctic regions. In this study, we isolated 32 and 52 A. fumigatus strains from soils in Iceland and the Northwest Territories of Canada (NWT), respectively. These isolates were genotyped at nine microsatellite loci and the genotypes were compared with each other and with those in other parts of the world. Though significantly differentiated from each other, our analyses revealed that A. fumigatus populations from Iceland and NWT contained evidence for both clonal and sexual reproductions, and shared many alleles with each other and with those collected from across Europe, Asia, and the Americas. Interestingly, we found one triazole-resistant strain containing the TR34 /L98H mutation in the cyp51A gene from NWT. This strain is closely related to a triazole-resistant genotype broadly distributed in India. Together, our results suggest that the northern soil populations of A. fumigatus are significantly influenced by those from other geographic regions.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Steve Delhaye ◽  
Thierry Fichefet ◽  
François Massonnet ◽  
David Docquier ◽  
Rym Msadek ◽  
...  

Abstract. The retreat of Arctic sea ice is frequently considered as a possible driver of changes in climate extremes in the Arctic and possibly down to mid-latitudes. However, it is unclear how the atmosphere will respond to a near-total retreat of summer Arctic sea ice, a reality that might occur in the foreseeable future. This study explores this question by conducting sensitivity experiments with two global coupled climate models run at two different horizontal resolutions to investigate the change in temperature and precipitation extremes during summer over peripheral Arctic regions following a sudden reduction in summer Arctic sea ice cover. An increase in frequency and persistence of maximum surface air temperature is found in all peripheral Arctic regions during the summer when sea ice loss occurs. For each million km2 of Arctic sea ice extent reduction, the absolute frequency of days exceeding the surface air temperature of the climatological 90th percentile increases by ~4 % over the Svalbard area, and the duration of warm spells increases by ~1 day per month over the same region. Furthermore, we find that the 10th percentile of surface daily air temperature increases more than the 90th percentile, leading to a weakened diurnal cycle of surface air temperature. Finally, an increase in extreme precipitation, which is less robust (statistically speaking) than the increase in extreme temperatures, is found in all regions in summer. These findings suggest that a sudden retreat of summer Arctic sea ice clearly impacts the extremes in maximum surface air temperature and precipitation over the peripheral Arctic regions with the largest influence over inhabited islands such as Svalbard or Northern Canada. Nonetheless, even with a large sea ice reduction in regions close to the North Pole, the local precipitation response is relatively small compared to internal climate variability.


2021 ◽  
pp. 36-47
Author(s):  
Natalia A. SEROVA ◽  
◽  
◽  

The article presents the results of a study of the peculiarities of financing the road economy of the Murmansk region — the Arctic region, the development of transport, including road, infrastructure of which acquires particular importance in the light of the implementation of national interests and priority directions of Russian state policy in the Arctic. In the course of work, the author considered the dynamics of spending funds from the Road Fund of the Murmansk region for 2012–2020. It has been determined that the existing volume of financing of the regional road infrastructure does not allow the region to fully implement the tasks of developing road infrastructure and improving the quality of highways (primarily local ones). It is concluded that additional funds are needed to finance the road infrastructure of the Arctic regions, including through the use of public-private partnership mechanisms. The results of the study can be used in the formation of a policy in the field of road facilities in the Murmansk region, as well as in further research on the financial support of road activities and the functioning of road funds.


2021 ◽  
pp. 113-126
Author(s):  
Svetlana V. KONDRATYEVA ◽  
◽  
Marina V. MOROSHKINA

The Arctic regions, being on the one hand an important resource for socio-economic development of the state, and on the other hand, characterized by harsh natural and climatic conditions of work and life, require special attention to achieving quality of life of the local population. The sphere of tourism and recreation is considered as a tool for restoration of physical and emotional forces of a person. The pur-pose of the study is to identify the opportunities and limitations of tourism and recreation for the residents of the Arctic regions of the Russian Federation. The study is based on the calculation of indices for economic, socio-economic and infrastructural indicators that characterize the opportunities and limitations of tourism and recreation organization by the population of the Arctic regions of Russia in the regional context. The results revealed the presence of high financial opportunities in the organization of tourist trips and leisure activities. There is a significant level of activity aimed at promoting inbound domestic and international tourism. It is revealed that the residents of the Arctic regions have a relatively low level of spending on recreation in the territory of permanent residence. The problems identified in the course of research work on recreation of residents of the Arctic regions in the territory of permanent residence require a more systematic and comprehensive approach. The results obtained can be used in strategic and policy documents on the development of the Arctic regions of the Russian Federation.


2021 ◽  
pp. 127-149
Author(s):  
Tatyana P. SKUFYINA ◽  
◽  
Vera P. SAMARINA ◽  
Sergey V. BARANOV ◽  
Ekaterina А. BAZHUTOVA ◽  
...  

Specificity of modern social processes determines close attention of the global scientific community to socio-demographic processes in the Arctic. The article examines systemic and recent social and de-mographic processes in the Russian Arctic, determined both by the immanent specifics of the Arctic (generating active migration processes, the phenomenon of city-forming enterprises, etc.) and by the all-Russian social reforms (in particular, the pension reform). The methodological peculiarity of the article is to present socio-demographic processes through the analysis of quantitative indicators, as well as through the reflection in the consciousness of the Arctic population (highlighting workers of city-forming enterprises) of modern factors of influence that determine their attitude to residence and work in the Arctic. The analysis of the results of settlement processes in the Arctic regions has been carried out, indicating an unstable stabilization of the population situation in the Nenets, Chukotka and Yamalo-Nenets okrugs, provided by various factors; it revealed the preservation of the negative trend of population decline in the Murmansk Oblast. Statistical analysis and surveys have revealed socio-demographic problems caused by the pension reform, which can aggravate the problem of the outflow of working-age population from the Arctic territories. It was found out that the reaction of city-forming enterprise employees differs from the "all-Arctic" reaction of the population on the grounds confirming the stabilizing role of city-forming enterprises in socio-demographic processes in the Arctic.


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