replication checkpoint
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2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (4) ◽  
pp. e202101153
Amandine Batté ◽  
Sophie C van der Horst ◽  
Mireille Tittel-Elmer ◽  
Su Ming Sun ◽  
Sushma Sharma ◽  

Eukaryotic cells have evolved a replication stress response that helps to overcome stalled/collapsed replication forks and ensure proper DNA replication. The replication checkpoint protein Mrc1 plays important roles in these processes, although its functional interactions are not fully understood. Here, we show that MRC1 negatively interacts with CHL1, which encodes the helicase protein Chl1, suggesting distinct roles for these factors during the replication stress response. Indeed, whereas Mrc1 is known to facilitate the restart of stalled replication forks, we uncovered that Chl1 controls replication fork rate under replication stress conditions. Chl1 loss leads to increased RNR1 gene expression and dNTP levels at the onset of S phase likely without activating the DNA damage response. This in turn impairs the formation of RPA-coated ssDNA and subsequent checkpoint activation. Thus, the Chl1 helicase affects RPA-dependent checkpoint activation in response to replication fork arrest by ensuring proper intracellular dNTP levels, thereby controlling replication fork progression under replication stress conditions.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Georgia Zoumpoulidou ◽  
Carlos Alvarez-Mendoza ◽  
Caterina Mancusi ◽  
Ritika-Mahmuda Ahmed ◽  
Milly Denman ◽  

AbstractLoss-of-function mutations in the RB1 tumour suppressor are key drivers in cancer, including osteosarcoma. RB1 loss-of-function compromises genome-maintenance and hence could yield vulnerability to therapeutics targeting such processes. Here we demonstrate selective hypersensitivity to clinically-approved inhibitors of Poly-ADP-Polymerase1,2 inhibitors (PARPi) in RB1-defective cancer cells, including an extended panel of osteosarcoma-derived lines. PARPi treatment results in extensive cell death in RB1-defective backgrounds and prolongs survival of mice carrying human RB1-defective osteosarcoma grafts. PARPi sensitivity is not associated with canonical homologous recombination defect (HRd) signatures that predict PARPi sensitivity in cancers with BRCA1,2 loss, but is accompanied by rapid activation of DNA replication checkpoint signalling, and active DNA replication is a prerequisite for sensitivity. Importantly, sensitivity in backgrounds with natural or engineered RB1 loss surpasses that seen in BRCA-mutated backgrounds where PARPi have established clinical benefit. Our work provides evidence that PARPi sensitivity extends beyond cancers identifiable by HRd and advocates PARP1,2 inhibition as a personalised strategy for RB1-mutated osteosarcoma and other cancers.

2021 ◽  
Camilla Colding ◽  
Jacob Autzen ◽  
Boris Pfander ◽  
Michael Lisby

DNA replication stress is a source of genome instability and a replication checkpoint has evolved to enable fork stabilisation and completion of replication during stress. Mediator of the replication checkpoint 1 (Mrc1) is the primary mediator of this response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mrc1 is partially sequestered in the intranuclear quality control compartment (INQ) upon methyl methanesulfonate (MMS)-induced replication stress. Here we show that Mrc1 re-localizes from the replication fork to INQ during replication stress. Sequestration of Mrc1 in INQ is facilitated by the Btn2 chaperone and the Cdc48 segregase is required to release Mrc1 from INQ during recovery from replication stress. Consistently, we show that Cdc48 colocalizes with Mrc1 in INQ and we find that Mrc1 is recognized by the Cdc48 cofactors Ufd1 and Otu1, which contribute to clearance of Mrc1 from INQ. Our findings suggest that INQ localization of Mrc1 and Cdc48 function to facilitate replication stress recovery by transiently sequestering the replication checkpoint mediator Mrc1 and explains our observation that Btn2 and Cdc48 are required for efficient replication restart following MMS-induced replication stress.

2021 ◽  
Vol 118 (38) ◽  
pp. e2109334118
Albert Serra-Cardona ◽  
Chuanhe Yu ◽  
Xinmin Zhang ◽  
Xu Hua ◽  
Yuan Yao ◽  

In response to DNA replication stress, DNA replication checkpoint kinase Mec1 phosphorylates Mrc1, which in turn activates Rad53 to prevent the generation of deleterious single-stranded DNA, a process that remains poorly understood. We previously reported that lagging-strand DNA synthesis proceeds farther than leading strand in rad53-1 mutant cells defective in replication checkpoint under replication stress, resulting in the exposure of long stretches of the leading-strand templates. Here, we show that asymmetric DNA synthesis is also observed in mec1-100 and mrc1-AQ cells defective in replication checkpoint but, surprisingly, not in mrc1∆ cells in which both DNA replication and checkpoint functions of Mrc1 are missing. Furthermore, depletion of either Mrc1 or its partner, Tof1, suppresses the asymmetric DNA synthesis in rad53-1 mutant cells. Thus, the DNA replication checkpoint pathway couples leading- and lagging-strand DNA synthesis by attenuating the replication function of Mrc1-Tof1 under replication stress.

Cancers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (18) ◽  
pp. 4601
Ukhyun Jo ◽  
Yasuhisa Murai ◽  
Naoko Takebe ◽  
Anish Thomas ◽  
Yves Pommier

Precision medicine aims to implement strategies based on the molecular features of tumors and optimized drug delivery to improve cancer diagnosis and treatment. DNA replication is a logical approach because it can be targeted by a broad range of anticancer drugs that are both clinically approved and in development. These drugs increase deleterious replication stress (RepStress); however, how to selectively target and identify the tumors with specific molecular characteristics are unmet clinical needs. Here, we provide background information on the molecular processes of DNA replication and its checkpoints, and discuss how to target replication, checkpoint, and repair pathways with ATR inhibitors and exploit Schlafen 11 (SLFN11) as a predictive biomarker.

Cell Division ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
Muhseena N. Katheeja ◽  
Shankar Prasad Das ◽  
Suparna Laha

Abstract Background The budding yeast protein Chl1p is a nuclear protein required for sister-chromatid cohesion, transcriptional silencing, rDNA recombination, ageing and plays an instrumental role in chromatin remodeling. This helicase is known to preserve genome integrity and spindle length in S-phase. Here we show additional roles of Chl1p at G1/S phase of the cell cycle following DNA damage. Results G1 arrested cells when exposed to DNA damage are more sensitive and show bud emergence with faster kinetics in chl1 mutants compared to wild-type cells. Also, more damage to DNA is observed in chl1 cells. The viability falls synergistically in rad24chl1 cells. The regulation of Chl1p on budding kinetics in G1 phase falls in line with Rad9p/Chk1p and shows a synergistic effect with Rad24p/Rad53p. rad9chl1 and chk1chl1 shows similar bud emergence as the single mutants chl1, rad9 and chk1. Whereas rad24chl1 and rad53chl1 shows faster bud emergence compared to the single mutants rad24, rad53 and chl1. In presence of MMS induced damage, synergistic with Rad24p indicates Chl1p’s role as a checkpoint at G1/S acting parallel to damage checkpoint pathway. The faster movement of DNA content through G1/S phase and difference in phosphorylation profile of Rad53p in wild type and chl1 cells confirms the checkpoint defect in chl1 mutant cells. Further, we have also confirmed that the checkpoint defect functions in parallel to the damage checkpoint pathway of Rad24p. Conclusion Chl1p shows Rad53p independent bud emergence and Rad53p dependent checkpoint activity in presence of damage. This confirms its requirement in two different pathways to maintain the G1/S arrest when cells are exposed to damaging agents. The bud emergence kinetics and DNA segregation were similar to wild type when given the same damage in nocodazole treated chl1 cells which establishes the absence of any role of Chl1p at the G2/M phase. The novelty of this paper lies in revealing the versatile role of Chl1p in checkpoints as well as repair towards regulating G1/S transition. Chl1p thus regulates the G1/S phase by affecting the G1 replication checkpoint pathway and shows an additive effect with Rad24p for Rad53p activation when damaging agents perturb the DNA. Apart from checkpoint activation, it also regulates the budding kinetics as a repair gene.

Hao-Wen Hsiao ◽  
Chi-Chun Yang ◽  
Hisao Masai

AbstractHuman cells need to cope with the stalling of DNA replication to complete replication of the entire genome to minimize genome instability. They respond to “replication stress” by activating the conserved ATR-Claspin-Chk1 replication checkpoint pathway. The stalled replication fork is detected and stabilized by the checkpoint proteins to prevent disintegration of the replication fork, to remove the lesion or problems that are causing fork block, and to facilitate the continuation of fork progression. Claspin, a factor conserved from yeasts to human, plays a crucial role as a mediator that transmits the replication fork arrest signal from the sensor kinase, ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR), to the effector kinase, Checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1). Claspin interacts with multiple kinases and replication factors and facilitates efficient replication fork progression and initiation during the normal course of DNA replication as well. It interacts with Cdc7 kinase through the acidic patch segment near the C-terminus and this interaction is critical for efficient phosphorylation of Mcm in non-cancer cells and also for checkpoint activation. Phosphorylation of Claspin by Cdc7, recruited to the acidic patch, regulates the conformation of Claspin through affecting the intramolecular interaction between the N- and C-terminal segments of Claspin. Abundance of Claspin is regulated at both mRNA and protein levels (post-transcriptional regulation and protein stability) and affects the extent of replication checkpoint. In this article, we will discuss how the ATR-Claspin-Chk1 regulates normal and stressed DNA replication and provide insight into the therapeutic potential of targeting replication checkpoint for efficient cancer cell death.

Marina Dall’Osto ◽  
Laura Pierini ◽  
Nicolas Valery ◽  
Jean-Sébastien Hoffmann ◽  
Marie-Jeanne Pillaire

DNA polymerase kappa (Pol κ) has been well documented thus far for its specialized DNA synthesis activity during translesion replication, progression of replication forks through regions difficult to replicate, restart of stalled forks and replication checkpoint efficiency. Pol κ is also required for the stabilization of stalled forks although the mechanisms are poorly understood. Here we unveiled an unexpected role for Pol κ in controlling the stability and abundance of Chk1, an important actor for the replication checkpoint and fork stabilization. We found that loss of Pol κ decreased the Chk1 protein level in the nucleus of four human cell lines. Pol κ and not the other Y‐family polymerase members is required to maintain the Chk1 protein pool all along the cell cycle. We showed that Pol κ depletion affected the protein stability of Chk1 and protected it from proteasome degradation. Importantly, we also observed that the fork restart defects observed in Pol κ-depleted cells could be overcome by the re-expression of Chk1. Strikingly, this new function of Pol κ does not require its catalytic activity. We propose that Pol κ could contribute to the protection of stalled forks through Chk1 stability.

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