stress response
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2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Malalaniaina Rakotobe ◽  
Niels Fjerdingstad ◽  
Nuria Ruiz-Reig ◽  
Thomas Lamonerie ◽  
Fabien D'Autréaux

Abstract Experiencing stress during sensitive periods of brain development has a major impact on how individuals cope with later stress. Although many become more prone to develop anxiety or depression, some appear resilient. The mechanisms underlying these differences are unknown. Key answers may lie in how genetic and environmental stressors interact to shape the circuits controlling emotions. Here we studied the role of the habenulo-interpeducuncular system (HIPS), a critical node of reward circuits, in early stress-induced anxiety. We found that a subcircuit of this system, characterized by Otx2 expression, is particularly responsive to chronic stress during puberty, which induces HIPS hypersensitivity to later stress and susceptibility to develop anxiety. We further show that Otx2 deletion restricted to the HIPS counteracts these effects of stress. Together, these results demonstrate that Otx2 and stress interact, around puberty, to shape the HIPS stress-response, revealed here as a key modulator of susceptibility/resilience to develop anxiety.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Hong Wang ◽  
Yunting Zhang ◽  
Ayla Norris ◽  
Cai-Zhong Jiang

Sugar metabolism not only determines fruit sweetness and quality but also acts as signaling molecules to substantially connect with other primary metabolic processes and, therefore, modulates plant growth and development, fruit ripening, and stress response. The basic region/leucine zipper motif (bZIP) transcription factor family is ubiquitous in eukaryotes and plays a diverse array of biological functions in plants. Among the bZIP family members, the smallest bZIP subgroup, S1-bZIP, is a unique one, due to the conserved upstream open reading frames (uORFs) in the 5′ leader region of their mRNA. The translated small peptides from these uORFs are suggested to mediate Sucrose-Induced Repression of Translation (SIRT), an important mechanism to maintain sucrose homeostasis in plants. Here, we review recent research on the evolution, sequence features, and biological functions of this bZIP subgroup. S1-bZIPs play important roles in fruit quality, abiotic and biotic stress responses, plant growth and development, and other metabolite biosynthesis by acting as signaling hubs through dimerization with the subgroup C-bZIPs and other cofactors like SnRK1 to coordinate the expression of downstream genes. Direction for further research and genetic engineering of S1-bZIPs in plants is suggested for the improvement of quality and safety traits of fruit.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Malalaniaina Rakotobe ◽  
Niels Fjerdingstad ◽  
Nuria Ruiz-Reig ◽  
Thomas Lamonerie ◽  
Fabien D'Autréaux

Abstract Experiencing stress during sensitive periods of brain development has a major impact on how individuals cope with later stress. Although many become more prone to develop anxiety or depression, some appear resilient. The mechanisms underlying these differences are unknown. Key answers may lie in how genetic and environmental stressors interact to shape the circuits controlling emotions. Here we studied the role of the habenulo-interpeducuncular system (HIPS), a critical node of reward circuits, in early stress-induced anxiety. We found that a subcircuit of this system, characterized by Otx2 expression, is particularly responsive to chronic stress during puberty, which induces HIPS hypersensitivity to later stress and susceptibility to develop anxiety. We further show that Otx2 deletion restricted to the HIPS counteracts these effects of stress. Together, these results demonstrate that Otx2 and stress interact, around puberty, to shape the HIPS stress-response, revealed here as a key modulator of susceptibility/resilience to develop anxiety.


PeerJ ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. e12718
Author(s):  
RongXiu Liu ◽  
Naresh Vasupalli ◽  
Dan Hou ◽  
Antony Stalin ◽  
Hantian Wei ◽  
...  

With-no-lysine (WNK) kinases play vital roles in abiotic stress response, circadian rhythms, and regulation of flowering time in rice, Arabidopsis, and Glycine max. However, there are no previous reports of WNKs in the Bambusoideae, although genome sequences are available for diploid, tetraploid, and hexaploid bamboo species. In the present study, we identified 41 WNK genes in five bamboo species and analysed gene evolution, phylogenetic relationship, physical and chemical properties, cis-elements, and conserved motifs. We predicted the structure of PeWNK proteins of moso bamboo and determined the exposed, buried, structural and functional amino acids. Real-time qPCR analysis revealed that PeWNK5, PeWNK7, PeWNK8, and PeWNK11 genes are involved in circadian rhythms. Analysis of gene expression of different organs at different developmental stages revealed that PeWNK genes are tissue-specific. Analysis of various abiotic stress transcriptome data (drought, salt, SA, and ABA) revealed significant gene expression levels in all PeWNKs except PeWNK11. In particular, PeWNK8 and PeWNK9 were significantly down- and up-regulated, respectively, after abiotic stress treatment. A co-expression network of PeWNK genes also showed that PeWNK2, PeWNK4, PeWNK7, and PeWNK8 were co-expressed with transcriptional regulators related to abiotic stress. In conclusion, our study identified the PeWNKs of moso bamboo involved in circadian rhythms and abiotic stress response. In addition, this study serves as a guide for future functional genomic studies of the WNK genes of the Bambusoideae.


Author(s):  
Divya Lodha ◽  
Jamuna R. Subramaniam

Abstract Objectives The main aim of this study is to identify the deleterious effects of indiscriminately consumed high fructose on motor neurons that are critically affected in many neurological conditions causing movement disorders including paralysis. Materials and Methods Neuroblastoma x mouse spinal cord motor neuron cell line (NSC-34) motor neuron cell lines were treated with high fructose and oxygen supplementation (18.8%) and assayed for cell proliferation/death, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and oxidative stress response induction Statistical Analysis Mean and standard deviation, significance with and without high fructose (F)-5%, were estimated by t-tests using GraphPad Prism ver. 8.2.1 Results F-5% along with O2 (18.8%) annihilates the cells (∼85%) by day10 and inhibits cell division as observed by the presence of multinucleated cells. Unexpectedly, 1 to 2% of cells that survived, differentiated and displayed progressive neurite extension. Though not healthy, they were viable up to 80 days. F-5% increased ROS levels (∼34%) not accompanied by concomitant enhanced expression of oxidative stress response regulator, the transcription factor, nrf-2, or downstream effector, sod-1. Conclusion High fructose is extremely harmful to NSC-34 motor neuron cell line.


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