metabolic remodeling
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2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
pp. 547
Author(s):  
Jun H. Heo ◽  
Sang R. Lee ◽  
Seong Lae Jo ◽  
Hyun Yang ◽  
Hye Won Lee ◽  
...  

Estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer patients are recommended hormone therapy as a primary adjuvant treatment after surgery. Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are widely administered to ER+ breast cancer patients as estrogen blockers; however, their safety remains controversial. The use of letrozole, an AI, has been reported to cause adverse cardiovascular effects. We aimed to elucidate the effects of letrozole on the cardiovascular system. Female rats exposed to letrozole for four weeks showed metabolic changes, i.e., decreased fatty acid oxidation, increased glycolysis, and hypertrophy in the left ventricle. Although lipid oxidation yields more ATP than carbohydrate metabolism, the latter predominates in the heart under pathological conditions. Reduced lipid metabolism is attributed to reduced β-oxidation due to low circulating estrogen levels. In letrozole-treated rats, glycolysis levels were found to be increased in the heart. Furthermore, the levels of glycolytic enzymes were increased (in a high glucose medium) and the glycolytic rate was increased in vitro (H9c2 cells); the same was not true in the case of estrogen treatment. Reduced lipid metabolism and increased glycolysis can lower energy supply to the heart, resulting in predisposition to heart failure. These data suggest that a letrozole-induced cardiac metabolic remodeling, i.e., a shift from β-oxidation to glycolysis, may induce cardiac structural remodeling.


2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
pp. 235
Author(s):  
Antoine H. Chaanine ◽  
LeeAnn Higgins ◽  
Todd Markowski ◽  
Jarrod Harman ◽  
Maureen Kachman ◽  
...  

Metabolic remodeling plays an important role in the pathophysiology of heart failure (HF). We sought to characterize metabolic remodeling and implicated signaling pathways in two rat models of early systolic dysfunction (MOD), and overt systolic HF (SHF). Tandem mass tag-labeled shotgun proteomics, phospho-(p)-proteomics, and non-targeted metabolomics analyses were performed in left ventricular myocardium tissue from Sham, MOD, and SHF using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry, n = 3 biological samples per group. Mitochondrial proteins were predominantly down-regulated in MOD (125) and SHF (328) vs. Sham. Of these, 82% (103/125) and 66% (218/328) were involved in metabolism and respiration. Oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation, Krebs cycle, branched-chain amino acids, and amino acid (glutamine and tryptophan) degradation were highly enriched metabolic pathways that decreased in SHF > MOD. Glycogen and glucose degradation increased predominantly in MOD, whereas glycolysis and pyruvate metabolism decreased predominantly in SHF. PKA signaling at the endoplasmic reticulum–mt interface was attenuated in MOD, whereas overall PKA and AMPK cellular signaling were attenuated in SHF vs. Sham. In conclusion, metabolic remodeling plays an important role in myocardial remodeling. PKA and AMPK signaling crosstalk governs metabolic remodeling in progression to SHF.


2021 ◽  
pp. 2100644
Author(s):  
Chaohua Tang ◽  
Shuang Li ◽  
Kai Zhang ◽  
Jing Li ◽  
Yunsheng Han ◽  
...  

Biomedicines ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (12) ◽  
pp. 1845
Author(s):  
Omid Azimzadeh ◽  
Vikram Subramanian ◽  
Wolfgang Sievert ◽  
Juliane Merl-Pham ◽  
Kateryna Oleksenko ◽  
...  

Radiation-induced cardiovascular disease is associated with metabolic remodeling in the heart, mainly due to the inactivation of the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), thereby inhibiting lipid metabolic enzymes. The objective of the present study was to investigate the potential protective effect of fenofibrate, a known agonist of PPARα on radiation-induced cardiac toxicity. To this end, we compared, for the first time, the cardiac proteome of fenofibrate- and placebo-treated mice 20 weeks after local heart irradiation (16 Gy) using label-free proteomics. The observations were further validated using immunoblotting, enzyme activity assays, and ELISA. The analysis showed that fenofibrate restored signalling pathways that were negatively affected by irradiation, including lipid metabolism, mitochondrial respiratory chain, redox response, tissue homeostasis, endothelial NO signalling and the inflammatory status. The results presented here indicate that PPARα activation by fenofibrate attenuates the cardiac proteome alterations induced by irradiation. These findings suggest a potential benefit of fenofibrate administration in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, following radiation exposure.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Chien-Sheng Wu ◽  
Hsiu-Jung Liao ◽  
I-Tsu Chyuan ◽  
Szu-Chieh Wang ◽  
Hua-Yi Lee ◽  
...  

Abstract Recent emerging evidences indicate that dysfunction of metabolic remodeling underlies aberrant T cell immune responses in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, how these aberrant immune activation and metabolic dysfunction interact in lupus patients are not fully understood. This study was undertaken to investigate the expression of HIF-1α, a regulator of metabolic reprogramming, in T cells from SLE. Our results demonstrated that HIF-1α expression is increased in CD4 T cells from SLE patients both in intracellular staining and quantitative real-time PCR analysis. In addition, there is enhanced HIF-1α expression in Th17-skewing murine T cells, and lentivirus-mediated HIF-1α overexpression promotes Th17 differentiation. Moreover, HIF-1α gene expression is positively correlated with the expression of glycolysis- and IL-17-associated genes in SLE patients. These results indicate that HIF-1α expression is increased in T cells from SLE patients, and is associated with enhanced Th17 pathway, implicating HIF-1α contributes to the activation of Th17 cells in SLE, and represents a potential novel therapeutic target.


2021 ◽  
Vol 177 ◽  
pp. S105
Author(s):  
Tamara Zakic ◽  
Marta Budnar ◽  
Strahinja Djuric ◽  
Andjelika Kalezic ◽  
Aleksandra Korac ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Bastian Ramms ◽  
Dennis P Pollow ◽  
Han Zhu ◽  
Chelsea Nora ◽  
Austin R Harrington ◽  
...  

The transition from lean to obese states involves systemic metabolic remodeling that impacts insulin sensitivity, lipid partitioning, inflammation, and glycemic control. Here, we have taken a pharmacological approach to test the role of a nutrient-regulated chromatin modifier, lysine-specific demethylase (LSD1), in obesity-associated metabolic reprogramming. We show that systemic administration of an LSD1 inhibitor (GSK-LSD1) reduces food intake and body weight, ameliorates non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and improves insulin sensitivity and glycemic control in mouse models of obesity. GSK-LSD1 has little effect on systemic metabolism of lean mice, suggesting LSD1 has a context-dependent role in promoting maladaptive changes in obesity. Analysis of insulin target tissues identified white adipose tissue as the major site of insulin sensitization by GSK-LSD1, where it reduces adipocyte inflammation and lipolysis. We demonstrate that GSK-LSD1 reverses NAFLD in a non-hepatocyte-autonomous manner, suggesting an indirect mechanism via inhibition of adipocyte lipolysis and subsequent effects on lipid partitioning. Pair-feeding experiments further revealed that effects of GSK-LSD1 on hyperglycemia and NAFLD are not a consequence of reduced food intake and weight loss. These findings suggest that targeting LSD1 could be a strategy for treatment of obesity and its associated complications including type 2 diabetes and NAFLD.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Author(s):  
Daniela Criscuolo ◽  
Rosario Avolio ◽  
Danilo Swann Matassa ◽  
Franca Esposito

Extensive metabolic remodeling is a fundamental feature of cancer cells. Although early reports attributed such remodeling to a loss of mitochondrial functions, it is now clear that mitochondria play central roles in cancer development and progression, from energy production to synthesis of macromolecules, from redox modulation to regulation of cell death. Biosynthetic pathways are also heavily affected by the metabolic rewiring, with protein synthesis dysregulation at the hearth of cellular transformation. Accumulating evidence in multiple organisms shows that the metabolic functions of mitochondria are tightly connected to protein synthesis, being assembly and activity of respiratory complexes highly dependent on de novo synthesis of their components. In turn, protein synthesis within the organelle is tightly connected with the cytosolic process. This implies an entire network of interactions and fine-tuned regulations that build up a completely under-estimated level of complexity. We are now only preliminarily beginning to reconstitute such regulatory level in human cells, and to perceive its role in diseases. Indeed, disruption or alterations of these connections trigger conditions of proteotoxic and energetic stress that could be potentially exploited for therapeutic purposes. In this review, we summarize the available literature on the coordinated regulation of mitochondrial and cytosolic mRNA translation, and their effects on the integrity of the mitochondrial proteome and functions. Finally, we highlight the potential held by this topic for future research directions and for the development of innovative therapeutic approaches.


mSystems ◽  
2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Julia I. Martien ◽  
Edna A. Trujillo ◽  
Tyler B. Jacobson ◽  
Mehmet Tatli ◽  
Alexander S. Hebert ◽  
...  

Biofuels and bioproducts have the potential to serve as environmentally sustainable replacements for petroleum-derived fuels and commodity molecules. Advanced fuels such as higher alcohols and isoprenoids are more suitable gasoline replacements than bioethanol.


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