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Biomedicines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 184
Nicolas C. Nicolaides ◽  
Manousos Makridakis ◽  
Rafael Stroggilos ◽  
Vasiliki Lygirou ◽  
Eleni Koniari ◽  

: Significant inter-individual variation in terms of susceptibility to several stress-related disorders, such as myocardial infarction and Alzheimer’s disease, and therapeutic response has been observed among healthy subjects. The molecular features responsible for this phenomenon have not been fully elucidated. Proteomics, in association with bioinformatics analysis, offer a comprehensive description of molecular phenotypes with clear links to human disease pathophysiology. The aim of this study was to conduct a comparative plasma proteomics analysis of glucocorticoid resistant and glucocorticoid sensitive healthy subjects and provide clues of the underlying physiological differences. For this purpose, 101 healthy volunteers were given a very low dose (0.25 mg) of dexamethasone at midnight, and were stratified into the 10% most glucocorticoid sensitive (S) (n = 11) and 10% most glucocorticoid resistant (R) (n = 11) according to the 08:00 h serum cortisol concentrations determined the following morning. One month following the very-low dose dexamethasone suppression test, DNA and plasma samples were collected from the 22 selected individuals. Sequencing analysis did not reveal any genetic defects in the human glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1) gene. To investigate the proteomic profile of plasma samples, we used Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and found 110 up-regulated and 66 down-regulated proteins in the S compared to the R group. The majority of the up-regulated proteins in the S group were implicated in platelet activation. To predict response to cortisol prior to administration, a random forest classifier was developed by using the proteomics data in order to distinguish S from R individuals. Apolipoprotein A4 (APOA4) and gelsolin (GSN) were the most important variables in the classification, and warrant further investigation. Our results indicate that a proteomics signature may differentiate the S from the R healthy subjects, and may be useful in clinical practice. In addition, it may provide clues of the underlying molecular mechanisms of the chronic stress-related diseases, including myocardial infarction and Alzheimer’s disease.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Aniello Maiese ◽  
Fabio Del Duca ◽  
Paola Santoro ◽  
Lavinia Pellegrini ◽  
Alessandra De Matteis ◽  

In forensic practice, the pathologist is often asked to determine whether a hanging was committed as suicide or as a simulated hanging (when a dead body is suspended after death). When exterior evidence of violence is absent and the crime scene investigation fails to identify useful proof, it is nearly impossible to tell whether the dead body was suspended or not. As a result, determining whether the ligature mark was created during life or not should rely on the research and demonstration of vital reactions on the ligature mark. The main purpose of this review article is to provide a summary of current knowledge about the histological and immunohistochemical characteristics of vitality in hanging. The authors also aim to identify the most significant vitality markers on ligature marks for further scientific validation and to propose a standardized diagnostic protocol for hanging. The study was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review (PRISMA) Protocol. Relevant scientific papers were found from PubMed up to April 2021, using the following keywords: hanging AND skin AND vitality. Three main points were studied: ligature mark dehydration, immunological response to mechanical injury, and apoptosis induction as a result of the previous points. An increase in apoptosis is evident in the ligature mark (due to physical and chemical processes involved), as demonstrated by FLICE-inhibitory protein (FLIP) depletion. Immunohistochemical detection of Aquaporin 3 (AQP3) and increase in the concentration of different electrolytes rely solely on ligature mark dehydration. Also, microRNAs (MiRNAs) could become reliable forensic biomarkers for ligature mark vitality diagnosis in the near future. To ensure high reliability in court cases, forensic investigation in hanging should rely on modern and proven markers, even a mix of several markers.

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 502
Sergio Davinelli ◽  
Luciano Saso ◽  
Floriana D’Angeli ◽  
Vittorio Calabrese ◽  
Mariano Intrieri ◽  

Astaxanthin (AST) is a dietary xanthophyll predominantly found in marine organisms and seafood. Due to its unique molecular features, AST has an excellent antioxidant activity with a wide range of applications in the nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries. In the past decade, mounting evidence has suggested a protective role for AST against a wide range of diseases where oxidative stress and inflammation participate in a self-perpetuating cycle. Here, we review the underlying molecular mechanisms by which AST regulates two relevant redox-sensitive transcription factors, such as nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). Nrf2 is a cellular sensor of electrophilic stress that coordinates the expression of a battery of defensive genes encoding antioxidant proteins and detoxifying enzymes. Likewise, NF-κB acts as a mediator of cellular stress and induces the expression of various pro-inflammatory genes, including those encoding cytokines, chemokines, and adhesion molecules. The effects of AST on the crosstalk between these transcription factors have also been discussed. Besides this, we summarize the current clinical studies elucidating how AST may alleviate the etiopathogenesis of oxidative stress and inflammation.

Isabel Fuenzalida-Valdivia ◽  
Maria Victoria Gangas ◽  
Diego Zavala ◽  
Ariel Herrera-Vásquez ◽  
Fabrice Roux ◽  

Here, we report the genome sequence of the P. syringae strain RAYR-BL, isolated from natural accessions of Arabidopsis plants. The draft genome sequence consists of 5.85 Mbp assembled in 110 contigs. The study of P. syringae RAYR-BL is a valuable tool to investigate molecular features of plant-pathogen interaction under environmental conditions.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Mingming Hu ◽  
Jinjing Tan ◽  
Zhentian Liu ◽  
Lifeng Li ◽  
Hongmei Zhang ◽  

BackgroundYoung lung cancer as a small subgroup of lung cancer has not been fully studied. Most of the previous studies focused on the clinicopathological features, but studies of molecular characteristics are still few and limited. Here, we explore the characteristics of prognosis and variation in young lung cancer patients with NSCLC.MethodsA total of 5639 young lung cancer samples (NSCLC, age ≤40) were screened from the SEER and the same number of the old (NSCLC, age ≥60) were screened by propensity score matching to evaluate the prognosis of two groups. 165 treatment-naïve patients diagnosed with NSCLC were enrolled to explore the molecular feature difference between two age-varying groups. CCLE cell line expression data was used to verify the finding from the cohort of 165 patients.ResultsThe overall survival of the young lung cancer group was significantly better than the old. Germline analysis showed a trend that the young group contained a higher incidence of germline alterations. The TMB of the young group was lower. Meanwhile, the heterogeneity and evolutionary degrees of the young lung cancer group were also lower than the old. The mutation spectrums of two groups exhibited variance with LRP1B, SMARCA4, STK11, FAT2, RBM10, FANCM mutations, EGFR L858R more recurrent in the old group and EML4-ALK fusions, BCL2L11 deletion polymorphism, EGFR 19DEL, 20IN more recurrent in the young group. For the base substitution, the young showed a lower fraction of transversion. Further, we performed a pathway analysis and found the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance pathway enriched in the young lung cancer group, which was validated in gene expression data later.ConclusionsThere were significantly different molecular features of the young lung cancer group. The young lung cancer group had a more simple alteration structure. Alteration spectrums and base substitution types varied between two groups, implying the different pathogenesis. The young lung cancer group had more potential treatment choices. Although young lung patients had better outcomes, there were still adverse factors of them, suggesting that the young group still needs more caution for treatment choice and monitoring after the treatment to further improve the prognosis.

2022 ◽  
Charles Perou ◽  
Susana Garcia-Recio ◽  
Gregory Wheeler ◽  
Benjamin Kelly ◽  
Ana Garrido-Castro ◽  

Abstract Patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) typically have short survival times and their successful treatment represents one of most challenging aspects of patient care. This poor prognostic behavior is in part due to molecular features including increased tumor cell clonal heterogeneity, multiple drug resistance mechanisms, and alterations of the tumor microenvironment. The AURORA US Metastasis Project was established with the goal to identify molecular features specifically associated with metastasis. We therefore collected and molecularly characterized specimens from 55 metastatic breast cancer (BC) patients representing 51 primary cancers and 102 metastases. The 153 unique tumors were assayed using RNAseq, tumor/germline DNA exomes and low pass whole genome sequencing, and global DNA methylation microarrays. We found intrinsic molecular subtype differences between primary tumors and their matched metastases to be rare in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC)/Basal-like subtype tumors. Conversely, tumor subtype changes were relatively frequent in estrogen receptor positive (ER+) cancers where ~30% of Luminal A cases switched to Luminal B or HER2-enriched (HER2E) subtypes. Clonal evolution studies identified changes in expression subtype coincident with DNA clonality shifts, especially involving HER2 amplification and/or the HER2E expression subtype. We further found evidence for ER-mediated downregulation of genes involved in cell-cell adhesion in metastases. Microenvironment differences varied according to tumor subtype where ER+/Luminal metastases had lower fibroblast and endothelial cell content, while TNBC/Basal-like metastases showed a dramatic decrease in B cells and T cells. In 17% of metastatic tumors, we identified DNA hypermethylation and/or focal DNA deletions near HLA-A that were associated with its’ significantly reduced expression, and with lower immune cell infiltrates. We also identified low immune cell features in brain and liver metastases when compared to other metastatic sites, even within the same patient. These findings have direct implications for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer patients with immune- and HER2-targeting therapies and suggest potential novel therapeutic avenues for the improvement of outcomes for some patients with MBC.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Shenghan Lou ◽  
Yufei Wang ◽  
Jian Zhang ◽  
Xin Yin ◽  
Yao Zhang ◽  

DNA damage repair (DDR) comprises the detection and correction of alterations in the chemical structure of DNA. The dysfunction of the DDR process has been determined to have important implications for tumor carcinogenesis, malignancy progression, treatment resistance, and prognosis assessment. However, the role of the DDR process in gastric cancer (GC) remains to be fully understood. Thus, a total of 2,019 GC samples from our hospital (Harbin Medical University Cancer Hospital in china) and 12 public data sets were included in our study. In this study, single-sample gene set enrichment analysis (ssGSEA) was used to generate the DDR pathway activity profiles of 8 DDR sub-pathways and identify a DDR pathway signature by combining the DDR sub-pathway gene sets. The DDR pathway profiling’s impacts on the clinical outcomes, biological functions, genetic variants, immune heterogeneity, and treatment responses were analyzed through multidimensional genomics and clinical data. The results demonstrate that the DDR pathway profiling was clearly distinguished between tumor and normal tissues. The DDR pathway profiling reveals patient-level variations, which may contribute to explaining the high heterogeneity of human GC for the biological features and treatment outcomes. Thus, tumors with low DDR signature scores were independently correlated with shorter overall survival time and significantly associated with mesenchymal, invasion, and metastasis phenotypes. The statistical model integrating this DDR pathway signature with other clinical predictors outperforms each predictor alone for predicting overall survival in discrimination, calibration, and net clinical benefit. Moreover, low DDR signature scores were tightly associated with genome stability, characterized by low tumor mutational burden (TMB) and low fractions of genome alteration. Furthermore, this study confirms that patients with low DDR pathway signature scores might not benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy and a monoclonal antibody directed against programmed cell death-1 ligand 1 (anti-PD1) therapy. These findings highlighted that the DDR pathway profiling confers important implications for patients with GC and provides insights into the specific clinical and molecular features underlying the DDR process, which may help to facilitate clinical management.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Soledad Iseas ◽  
Juan M. Sendoya ◽  
Juan Robbio ◽  
Mariana Coraglio ◽  
Mirta Kujaruk ◽  

Rectal Cancer (RC) is a complex disease that involves highly variable treatment responses. Currently, there is a lack of reliable markers beyond TNM to deliver a personalized treatment in a cancer setting where the goal is a curative treatment. Here, we performed an integrated characterization of the predictive and prognostic role of clinical features, mismatch-repair deficiency markers, HER2, CDX2, PD-L1 expression, and CD3−CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) coupled with targeted DNA sequencing of 76 non-metastatic RC patients assigned to total mesorectal excision upfront (TME; n = 15) or neoadjuvant chemo-radiotherapy treatment (nCRT; n = 61) followed by TME. Eighty-two percent of RC cases displayed mutations affecting cancer driver genes such as TP53, APC, KRAS, ATM, and PIK3CA. Good response to nCRT treatment was observed in approximately 40% of the RC cases, and poor pathological tumor regression was significantly associated with worse disease-free survival (DFS, HR = 3.45; 95%CI = 1.14–10.4; p = 0.028). High neutrophils-platelets score (NPS) (OR = 10.52; 95%CI=1.34–82.6; p = 0.025) and KRAS mutated cases (OR = 5.49; 95%CI = 1.06–28.4; p = 0.042) were identified as independent predictive factors of poor response to nCRT treatment in a multivariate analysis. Furthermore, a Cox proportional-hazard model showed that the KRAS mutational status was an independent prognostic factor associated with higher risk of local recurrence (HR = 9.68; 95%CI = 1.01–93.2; p <0.05) and shorter DFS (HR = 2.55; 95%CI = 1.05–6.21; p <0.05), while high CEA serum levels were associated with poor DFS (HR = 2.63; 95%CI = 1.01–6.85; p <0.05). Integrated clinical and molecular-based unsupervised analysis allowed us to identify two RC prognostic groups (cluster 1 and cluster 2) associated with disease-specific OS (HR = 20.64; 95%CI = 2.63–162.2; p <0.0001), metastasis-free survival (HR = 3.67; 95%CI = 1.22–11; p = 0.012), local recurrence-free survival (HR = 3.34; 95%CI = 0.96–11.6; p = 0.043) and worse DFS (HR = 2.68; 95%CI = 1.18–6.06; p = 0.012). The worst prognosis cluster 2 was enriched by stage III high-risk clinical tumors, poor responders to nCRT, with low TILs density and high frequency of KRAS and TP53 mutated cases compared with the best prognosis cluster 1 (p <0.05). Overall, this study provides a comprehensive and integrated characterization of non-metastatic RC cases as a new insight to deliver a personalized therapeutic approach.

BMC Genomics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
José M. Uribe-Salazar ◽  
Gulhan Kaya ◽  
Aadithya Sekar ◽  
KaeChandra Weyenberg ◽  
Cole Ingamells ◽  

Abstract Background Zebrafish have practical features that make them a useful model for higher-throughput tests of gene function using CRISPR/Cas9 editing to create ‘knockout’ models. In particular, the use of G0 mosaic mutants has potential to increase throughput of functional studies significantly but may suffer from transient effects of introducing Cas9 via microinjection. Further, a large number of computational and empirical tools exist to design CRISPR assays but often produce varied predictions across methods leaving uncertainty in choosing an optimal approach for zebrafish studies. Methods To systematically assess accuracy of tool predictions of on- and off-target gene editing, we subjected zebrafish embryos to CRISPR/Cas9 with 50 different guide RNAs (gRNAs) targeting 14 genes. We also investigate potential confounders of G0-based CRISPR screens by assaying control embryos for spurious mutations and altered gene expression. Results We compared our experimental in vivo editing efficiencies in mosaic G0 embryos with those predicted by eight commonly used gRNA design tools and found large discrepancies between methods. Assessing off-target mutations (predicted in silico and in vitro) found that the majority of tested loci had low in vivo frequencies (< 1%). To characterize if commonly used ‘mock’ CRISPR controls (larvae injected with Cas9 enzyme or mRNA with no gRNA) exhibited spurious molecular features that might exacerbate studies of G0 mosaic CRISPR knockout fish, we generated an RNA-seq dataset of various control larvae at 5 days post fertilization. While we found no evidence of spontaneous somatic mutations of injected larvae, we did identify several hundred differentially-expressed genes with high variability between injection types. Network analyses of shared differentially-expressed genes in the ‘mock’ injected larvae implicated a number of key regulators of common metabolic pathways, and gene-ontology analysis revealed connections with response to wounding and cytoskeleton organization, highlighting a potentially lasting effect from the microinjection process that requires further investigation. Conclusion Overall, our results provide a valuable resource for the zebrafish community for the design and execution of CRISPR/Cas9 experiments.

Gut ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. gutjnl-2021-324295
Meritxell Ventura-Cots ◽  
Josepmaria Argemi ◽  
Patricia D Jones ◽  
Carolin Lackner ◽  
Mohamed El Hag ◽  

ObjectiveAlcohol-related liver disease (ALD) ranges from never-decompensated ALD (ndALD) to the life-threatening decompensated phenotype, known as alcohol-related hepatitis (AH). A multidimensional study of the clinical, histological and molecular features of these subtypes is lacking.DesignTwo large cohorts of patients were recruited in an international, observational multicentre study: a retrospective cohort of patients with ndALD (n=110) and a prospective cohort of patients with AH (n=225). Clinical, analytical, immunohistochemistry and hepatic RNA microarray analysis of both disease phenotypes were performed.ResultsAge and mean alcohol intake were similar in both groups. AH patients had greater aspartate amino transferase/alanine amino transferase ratio and lower gamma-glutamyl transferase levels than in ndALD patients. Patients with AH demonstrated profound liver failure and increased mortality. One-year mortality was 10% in ndALD and 50% in AH. Histologically, steatosis grade, ballooning and pericellular fibrosis were similar in both groups, while advanced fibrosis, Mallory-Denk bodies, bilirubinostasis, severe neutrophil infiltration and ductular reaction were more frequent among AH patients. Transcriptome analysis revealed a profound gene dysregulation within both phenotypes when compare to controls. While ndALD was characterised by deregulated expression of genes involved in matrisome and immune response, the development of AH resulted in a marked deregulation of genes involved in hepatocyte reprogramming and bile acid metabolism.ConclusionsDespite comparable alcohol intake, AH patients presented with worse liver function compared with ndALD patients. Bilirubinostasis, severe fibrosis and ductular reaction were prominent features of AH. AH patients exhibited a more profound deregulation of gene expression compared with ndALD patients.

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