local model
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2022 ◽  
Vol 69 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-26
Leonid Barenboim ◽  
Michael Elkin ◽  
Uri Goldenberg

We consider graph coloring and related problems in the distributed message-passing model. Locally-iterative algorithms are especially important in this setting. These are algorithms in which each vertex decides about its next color only as a function of the current colors in its 1-hop-neighborhood . In STOC’93 Szegedy and Vishwanathan showed that any locally-iterative Δ + 1-coloring algorithm requires Ω (Δ log Δ + log * n ) rounds, unless there exists “a very special type of coloring that can be very efficiently reduced” [ 44 ]. No such special coloring has been found since then. This led researchers to believe that Szegedy-Vishwanathan barrier is an inherent limitation for locally-iterative algorithms and to explore other approaches to the coloring problem [ 2 , 3 , 19 , 32 ]. The latter gave rise to faster algorithms, but their heavy machinery that is of non-locally-iterative nature made them far less suitable to various settings. In this article, we obtain the aforementioned special type of coloring. Specifically, we devise a locally-iterative Δ + 1-coloring algorithm with running time O (Δ + log * n ), i.e., below Szegedy-Vishwanathan barrier. This demonstrates that this barrier is not an inherent limitation for locally-iterative algorithms. As a result, we also achieve significant improvements for dynamic, self-stabilizing, and bandwidth-restricted settings. This includes the following results: We obtain self-stabilizing distributed algorithms for Δ + 1-vertex-coloring, (2Δ - 1)-edge-coloring, maximal independent set, and maximal matching with O (Δ + log * n ) time. This significantly improves previously known results that have O(n) or larger running times [ 23 ]. We devise a (2Δ - 1)-edge-coloring algorithm in the CONGEST model with O (Δ + log * n ) time and O (Δ)-edge-coloring in the Bit-Round model with O (Δ + log n ) time. The factors of log * n and log n are unavoidable in the CONGEST and Bit-Round models, respectively. Previously known algorithms had superlinear dependency on Δ for (2Δ - 1)-edge-coloring in these models. We obtain an arbdefective coloring algorithm with running time O (√ Δ + log * n ). Such a coloring is not necessarily proper, but has certain helpful properties. We employ it to compute a proper (1 + ε)Δ-coloring within O (√ Δ + log * n ) time and Δ + 1-coloring within O (√ Δ log Δ log * Δ + log * n ) time. This improves the recent state-of-the-art bounds of Barenboim from PODC’15 [ 2 ] and Fraigniaud et al. from FOCS’16 [ 19 ] by polylogarithmic factors. Our algorithms are applicable to the SET-LOCAL model [ 25 ] (also known as the weak LOCAL model). In this model a relatively strong lower bound of Ω (Δ 1/3 ) is known for Δ + 1-coloring. However, most of the coloring algorithms do not work in this model. (In Reference [ 25 ] only Linial’s O (Δ 2 )-time algorithm and Kuhn-Wattenhofer O (Δ log Δ)-time algorithms are shown to work in it.) We obtain the first linear-in-Δ Δ + 1-coloring algorithms that work also in this model.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 734
Jaehyoung Park ◽  
Hyuk Lim

Federated learning (FL) is a machine learning technique that enables distributed devices to train a learning model collaboratively without sharing their local data. FL-based systems can achieve much stronger privacy preservation since the distributed devices deliver only local model parameters trained with local data to a centralized server. However, there exists a possibility that a centralized server or attackers infer/extract sensitive private information using the structure and parameters of local learning models. We propose employing homomorphic encryption (HE) scheme that can directly perform arithmetic operations on ciphertexts without decryption to protect the model parameters. Using the HE scheme, the proposed privacy-preserving federated learning (PPFL) algorithm enables the centralized server to aggregate encrypted local model parameters without decryption. Furthermore, the proposed algorithm allows each node to use a different HE private key in the same FL-based system using a distributed cryptosystem. The performance analysis and evaluation of the proposed PPFL algorithm are conducted in various cloud computing-based FL service scenarios.

Materials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 119
Hong-Jun Noh ◽  
Hun-Bong Lim ◽  
Hee-Chan Yoon ◽  
Young-Hwan Han ◽  
Hyun-Ik Yang

In the shipbuilding industry, welding is the main technique used to join steel structures. There is a lifting process, post-welding, that can eliminate the correction effect of line heating. Line heating is reperformed after the lifting process. This can significantly delay the ship assembly process. Herein, we present a design method for installing a permanent stiffener to avoid the disappearance of the line heating effect during the lifting process. The change in physical properties due to heating and cooling of the line heating is calculated. The limiting stress, at which the effect of the line heating completely disappears, based on the inherent strain theory, is obtained. The phase fraction by the cooling rate is calculated using the continuous cooling transformation diagram and the Kiustinen–Marburgerm equation. Physical properties affected by the phase transformation are calculated, considering the physical properties and fraction of each phase. The square plate theory and superposition principle are used to construct a local model, with a stiffener, of the ship block. The stress caused by the shape of the stiffener and the distance between the stiffeners were calculated for the local model. The calculated stress and the limiting stress were compared to determine, for the expected line heating efficiency, the most acceptable stiffener design. Finally, to confirm the elimination of the problem, the designed stiffener is analyzed using the finite element method.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (24) ◽  
pp. 12117
Zhinong Li ◽  
Zedong Li ◽  
Yunlong Li ◽  
Junyong Tao ◽  
Qinghua Mao ◽  

In engineering, the fault data unevenly distribute and difficultly share, which causes that the existing fault diagnosis methods cannot recognize the newly added fault types. An intelligent diagnosis method for machine fault is proposed based on federated learning. Firstly, the local fault diagnosis models diagnosing the existing fault data and the newly added fault data are established by deep convolutional neural network. Then, the weight parameters of local models are fused into global model parameters by federated learning. Finally, the global model parameters are transmitted to each local model. Therefore, each local model update into a global shared model which can recognize the newly added fault types. The proposed method is verified by bearing data. Compared with the traditional model, which can only diagnose the existing fault data but cannot recognize newly added fault types, the federated fault diagnosis model fusing weight parameters can diagnose newly added faults without exchanging the data, and the accuracy is 100%. The proposed method provides an effective method to solve the poor sharing of fault data and poor generalization of fault diagnosis model for mechanical equipment.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Yingya Guo ◽  
Kai Huang ◽  
Jianshan Chen

Internet traffic classification (TC) is a critical technique in network management and is widely applied in various applications. In traditional TC problems, the edge devices need to send the raw traffic data to the server for centralized processing, which not only generates a lot of communication overhead but also leads to the privacy leakage and information security issues. Federated learning (FL) is a new distributed machine learning paradigm that allows multiple clients to train a global model collaboratively without raw traffic data sharing. The TC in a FL framework preserves the user privacy and data security by keeping the raw traffic data local. However, because of the different user behaviours and user preferences, traffic data heterogeneity emerges. The existing FL solutions introduce bias in model training by averaging the local model parameters from all heterogeneous clients, which degrades the classification accuracy of the learnt global classification model. To improve the classification accuracy in heterogeneous data environment, this paper proposes a novel client selection algorithm, namely, WCL, in federated paradigm based on a combination of model weight divergence and local model training loss. Extensive experiments on the public traffic dataset QUIC and ISCX have proved that the WCL algorithm obtains, compared to CMFL, superior performance in improving model accuracy and convergence speed on low heterogeneous traffic data and high heterogeneous traffic data, respectively.

Moushira Abdallah Mohamed Ahmed ◽  
Shuhui Wu ◽  
Laure Deveriane Dushime ◽  
Yuanhong Tao

The emerging of shuffle model has attracted considerable attention of scientists owing to his unique properties in solving the privacy problems in federated learning, specifically the trade off problem between privacy and utility in central and local model. Where, the central model relies on a trusted server which collects users’ raw data and then perturbs it. While in the local model all users perturb their data locally then they send their perturbed data to server. Both models have pron and con. The server in central model enjoys with high accuracy but the users suffer from insufficient privacy in contrast, the local model which provides sufficient privacy at users’ side but the server suffers from limited accuracy. Shuffle model has advanced property of hide position of input messages by perturbing it with perturbation π. Therefore, the scientists considered on adding shuffle model between users and servers to make the server untrusted where the users communicate with the server through the shuffle and boosting the privacy by adding perturbation π for users’ messages without increasing the noise level. Consequently, the usage of modified technique differential privacy federated learning with shuffle model will explores the gap between privacy and accuracy in both models. So this new model attracted many researchers in recent work. In this review, we initiate the analytic learning of a shuffled model for distributed differentially private mechanisms. We focused on the role of shuffle model for solving the problem between privacy and accuracy by summarizing the recent researches about shuffle model and its practical results. Furthermore, we present two types of shuffle, single shuffle and m shuffles with the statistical analysis for each one in boosting the privacy amplification of users with the same level of accuracy by reasoning the practical results of recent papers.

Ahsene Boubakir ◽  
Sid-Ahmed Touil ◽  
Salim Labiod ◽  
Nasserdine Boudjerda

AbstractIn this paper, a robust model-free controller for a grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) system is designed. The system consists of a PV generator connected to a three-phase grid by a DC/AC converter. The control objectives of the overall system are to extract maximum power from the PV source, to control reactive power exchange and to improve the quality of the current injected into the grid. The model-free control technique is based on the use of an ultra-local model instead of the dynamic model of the overall system. The local model is continuously updated based on a numerical differentiator using only the input–output behavior of the controlled system. The model-free controller consists of a classical feedback controller and a compensator for the effects of internal parameter changes and external disturbances. Simulation results illustrate the efficiency of the controller for grid-connected PV systems.

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