organic light
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2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Monirul Hasan ◽  
Siddhartha Saggar ◽  
Atul Shukla ◽  
Fatima Bencheikh ◽  
Jan Sobus ◽  

AbstractPolaron-induced exciton quenching in thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF)-based organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) can lead to external quantum efficiency (EQE) roll-off and device degradation. In this study, singlet-polaron annihilation (SPA) and triplet-polaron annihilation (TPA) were investigated under steady-state conditions and their relative contributions to EQE roll-off were quantified, using experimentally obtained parameters. It is observed that both TPA and SPA can lead to efficiency roll-off in 2,4,5,6-tetra(9H-carbazol-9-yl)isophthalonitrile (4CzIPN) doped OLEDs. Charge imbalance and singlet-triplet annihilation (STA) were found to be the main contributing factors, whereas the device degradation process is mainly dominated by TPA. It is also shown that the impact of electric field-induced exciton dissociation is negligible under the DC operation regime (electric field < 0.5 MV cm−1). Through theoretical simulation, it is demonstrated that improvement to the charge recombination rate may reduce the effect of polaron-induced quenching, and thus significantly decrease the EQE roll-off.

Nano Letters ◽  
2022 ◽  
Philipp Grimm ◽  
Stefan Zeißner ◽  
Maximilian Rödel ◽  
Simon Wiegand ◽  
Sebastian Hammer ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Ruitao Su ◽  
Sung Hyun Park ◽  
Xia Ouyang ◽  
Song Ih Ahn ◽  
Michael C. McAlpine

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
Hyungseok Kang ◽  
Joo Sung Kim ◽  
Seok-Ryul Choi ◽  
Young-Hoon Kim ◽  
Do Hwan Kim ◽  

AbstractIn this study, we performed metal (Ag, Ni, Cu, or Pd) electroplating of core–shell metallic Ag nanowire (AgNW) networks intended for use as the anode electrode in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) to modify the work function (WF) and conductivity of the AgNW networks. This low-cost and facile electroplating method enabled the precise deposition of metal onto the AgNW surface and at the nanowire (NW) junctions. AgNWs coated onto a transparent glass substrate were immersed in four different metal electroplating baths: those containing AgNO3 for Ag electroplating, NiSO4 for Ni electroplating, Cu2P2O7 for Cu electroplating, and PdCl2 for Pd electroplating. The solvated metal ions (Ag+, Ni2+, Cu2+, and Pd2+) in the respective electroplating baths were reduced to the corresponding metals on the AgNW surface in the galvanostatic mode under a constant electric current achieved by linear sweep voltammetry via an external circuit between the AgNW networks (cathode) and a Pt mesh (anode). The amount of electroplated metal was systematically controlled by varying the electroplating time. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that the four different metals (shells) were successfully electroplated on the AgNWs (core), and the nanosize-controlled electroplating process produced metal NWs with varying diameters, conductivities, optical transmittances, and WFs. The metal-electroplated AgNWs were successfully employed as the anode electrodes of the OLEDs. This facile and low-cost method of metal electroplating of AgNWs to increase their WFs and conductivities is a promising development for the fabrication of next-generation OLEDs.

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