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Biagio Rapone ◽  
Elisabetta Ferrara ◽  
Luigi Santacroce ◽  
Skender Topi ◽  
Antonio Gnoni ◽  

Background: the establishment of periodontitis is regulated by the primary etiological factor and several individual conditions including the immune response mechanism of the host and individual genetic factors. It results when the oral homeostasis is interrupted, and biological reactions favor the development and progression of periodontal tissues damage. Different strategies have been explored for reinforcing the therapeutic effect of non-surgical periodontal treatment of periodontal tissue damage. Gaseous ozone therapy has been recognized as a promising antiseptic adjuvant, because of its immunostimulating, antimicrobial, antihypoxic, and biosynthetic effects. Then, we hypothesized that the adjunct of gaseous ozone therapy to standard periodontal treatment may be leveraged to promote the tissue healing response. Methods: to test this hypothesis, we conducted a prospective randomized study comparing non-surgical periodontal treatment plus gaseous ozone therapy to standard therapy. A total of 90 healthy individuals with moderate or severe generalized periodontitis were involved in the study. The trial was conducted from September 2019 to October 2020. Forty-five patients were randomized to receive scaling and root-planning (SRP) used as conventional non-surgical periodontal therapy plus gaseous ozone therapy (GROUP A); forty-five were allocated to standard treatment (GROUP B). The endpoint was defined as the periodontal response rate after the application of the ozone therapy at 3 months and 6 months, defined as no longer meeting the criteria for active periodontitis. Statistical analysis was performed employing SPSS v.18 Chicago: SPSS Inc. Results: periodontal parameters differed significantly between patients treated with the two distinct procedures at 3 months (p ≤ 0.005); a statistically significant difference between groups was observed from baseline in the CAL (p ≤ 0.0001), PPD (p ≤ 0.0001) and BOP (p ≤ 0.0001) scores. Conclusions: The present study suggests that SRP combined with ozone therapy in the treatment of periodontitis revealed an improved outcome than SRP alone.

2022 ◽  
James Christopher Wiley

We used an actor–partner interdependence model (APIM) to study the association between the individual group member and other group therapy members’ defensive functioning on an individual group member’s treatment outcome. We hypothesized that (a) more adaptive individual defensive functioning at pretreatment will be significantly related to better treatment outcomes (i.e., lower binge eating and interpersonal distress) at 6 months post-treatment; and (b) more adaptive other group members’ defensive functioning at pretreatment will be significantly related to better treatment outcomes at 6 months post-treatment. Participants (N = 136) were individuals with BED enrolled in group psychodynamic-interpersonal psychotherapy (GPIP). Participants completed attachment interviews and were assessed on interpersonal distress and days binged at pre-treatment and 6 months post-treatment. The interview audio recordings were transcribed and used to code defensive functioning. We found that individual overall defensive functioning (ODF) scores at pretreatment were not significantly associated with binge-eating frequency or interpersonal distress at 6 months post treatment. Other group members’ mean ODF scores at pretreatment were significantly associated with individual interpersonal distress at 6 months post-treatment. However, the other group members’ mean ODF scores were not significantly associated with individual binge-eating outcomes at 6 months post treatment. Defensive functioning of other members of a therapy group may be particularly important for improving interpersonal functioning in individuals with BED.

Pharmacy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 16
Sarah Grace Gunter ◽  
Mary Joyce B. Wingler ◽  
David A. Cretella ◽  
Jamie L. Wagner ◽  
Katie E. Barber ◽  

Limited data are available regarding optimal antimicrobial therapy for Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) in pediatric patients. The purpose of this study was to assess clinical characteristics and outcomes associated with intravenous (IV) versus oral step-down treatment of pediatric SAB. This study evaluated patients aged 3 months to 18 years that received at least 72 h of inpatient treatment for SAB. The primary endpoint was 30-day readmission. Secondary endpoints included hospital length of stay and inpatient mortality. One hundred and one patients were included in this study. The median age was 7.9 years. Patients who underwent oral step-down were less likely to be immunocompromised and more likely to have community-acquired SAB from osteomyelitis or skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI). More patients in the IV therapy group had a 30-day readmission (10 (25.6%) vs. 3 (5.3%), p = 0.006). Mortality was low (5 (5%)) and not statistically different between groups. Length of stay was greater in patients receiving IV therapy only (11 vs. 7 days, p = 0.001). In this study, over half of the patients received oral step-down therapy and 30-day readmission was low for this group. Oral therapy appears to be safe and effective for patients with SAB from osteomyelitis or SSTIs.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Lorraine Smith-MacDonald ◽  
Jaimie Lusk ◽  
Dayna Lee-Baggley ◽  
Katherine Bright ◽  
Alexa Laidlaw ◽  

Introduction:In the context of the global pandemic of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus (COVID-19), healthcare providers (HCPs) have experienced difficult moral and ethical dilemmas. Research is highlighting the importance of moral injury (MI)–a trauma syndrome related to transgressing personal morals and values–in understanding the psychological harm and occupational impairment experienced by HCPs. To date, MI treatments have largely been developed for military personnel and veterans and rely on in-person one-on-one psychotherapy.Purpose:This project aims to explore the feasibility and acceptability of an evidence-informed online Acceptance and Commitment Therapy-based group therapy for MI in HCPs called “Accepting Moral Pain and Suffering for Healthcare Providers” (AMPS-HCP).Method:This feasibility and acceptability study included three separate phases with the first two phases focused on the development of the psychotherapeutic intervention and the third phase focused on the evaluation of the psychotherapeutic intervention. Eight participants (including registered nurses, practical nurses and respiratory therapists) completed seven 90-min sessions in an online group format. The focus of these sessions included ACT and MI psychoeducation and experientials. Qualitative semi-structured interview data was thematically analyzed while demographic and quantitative self-reported outcome data underwent descriptive analysis and non-parametric testing.Results:Results show that the intervention was highly feasible and acceptable to healthcare providers who worked on the frontline during COVID-19. Feasibility (referrals, eligibility, retention, participation engagement) was strong (8 out of 10 participants; 80% vs. desired >70% eligibility) and overall, 80% of participants completed 71% of the intervention. Data further supported the applicability and acceptability of the intervention. Preliminary data suggests that AMPS-HCP may supports HCPs to address MI.Discussion:This study is the first to report on the development and evaluation of an online MI group intervention for registered nurses, registered practical nurses, and respiratory therapists working during COVID-19. Results showed the use of both the online and group components of the intervention were acceptable and feasible during the third wave of COVID-19.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2 ◽  
Prudence Plummer ◽  
Silva Markovic-Plese ◽  
Barbara Giesser

Purpose: To demonstrate proof-of-concept for a combined physical therapy and pharmacological intervention and obtain preliminary estimates of the therapeutic efficacy of a motor-relearning physical therapy intervention with and without concurrent dalfampridine treatment on gait speed in people with mobility limitations due to multiple sclerosis (MS).Methods: Using a non-randomized, two-group design, 4 individuals with MS newly prescribed dalfampridine as part of their routine medical care, and 4 individuals with MS not taking dalfampridine completed a 3-week drug run-in or no-treatment baseline, respectively. After 3 weeks, all participants commenced physical therapy twice weekly for 6 weeks. Participants taking dalfampridine took the medication for the study duration. The physical therapy program comprised functional strengthening, gait training, balance training, and dual-task training. The primary outcome was Timed 25-foot Walk (T25FW) at the end of the 6-week physical therapy program.Results: For the 4 participants taking dalfampridine, average improvement in T25FW on drug only was 12.8% (95% CI 1.2 to 24.4%). During the 6-week physical therapy phase, both groups significantly improved T25FW, but the effect tended to favor the group taking dalfampridine (mean difference = −0.93 s, 95% CI −1.9 to 0.07 s, p = 0.064, d = 1.6). Whereas the physical therapy group had average T25FW improvement of 10.8% (95% CI 1.0 to 20.5%), the physical therapy plus dalfampridine group demonstrated average improvement of 20.7% (95% CI 3.8 to 37.6%).Conclusions: Further research is warranted to examine whether dalfampridine for mobility impairment may be augmented by physical therapy in people with MS.

Yong-Soon Yoon ◽  
Myoung-Hwan Ko ◽  
Il-Young Cho ◽  
Cheol-Su Kim ◽  
Johny Bajgai ◽  

Electrotherapy is commonly used for myalgia alleviation. Low-frequency stimulation (LFS) is primarily used for controlling acute and chronic pain and is a non-invasive therapy that can be easily performed with electric stimulation applied on the skin. However, little evidence exists regarding the pain alleviation effects of personal low-frequency stimulation device for home use. Moreover, no studies have compared myalgia alleviation effects between personal low-frequency stimulation (PLS) and physical therapy (PT), which are most commonly used for patients with myalgia in hospitals and clinics. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the pain alleviation effects of PLS in patients with myalgia and compare these effects with those of conventional PT (transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation + ultrasound). In total, 39 patients with myalgia in the neck, shoulder, back, and waist areas were randomly assigned to the personal low-frequency stimulation group (PLSG: n = 20) and physical therapy group (PTG: n = 19). Both groups were treated for 3 weeks (20 min per session and 5 sessions per week). Patients were assessed for pain intensity by surface electromyography (sEMG), visual analogue scale (VAS) and a short-form McGill pain questionnaire (SF-MPQ) before and after the intervention period. Our results showed that PLSG showed a tendency of muscle relaxation with a significant decrease in sEMG in the neck (p = 0.0425), shoulder (p = 0.0425), and back (p = 0.0046) areas compared to the control group. However, there was no significant difference in waist area. Additionally, VAS scores significantly decreased between pre- and post-treatment in both PTG (p = 0.0098), and PLSG (p = 0.0304) groups, but there was no significance difference between the groups. With respect to SF-MPQ, the PLSG showed greater pain alleviation (5.23 ± 0.25) effects than the PTG (6.23 ± 0.25). Accordingly, our results suggest that PLS treatment using a home device might offer positive assistance in pain alleviation for patients with myalgia that is as equally effective as conventional PT treatment. However, further detailed studies are required considering larger samples to fully claim the effectiveness of this device.

Lajolo C ◽  
Rupe C ◽  
Gioco G ◽  
Giuliani M ◽  
Contaldo M ◽  

Abstract Objectives To estimate the economic costs of oral lichen planus (OLP) through a multicenter university hospital–based outpatient study conducted in Italy and Finland. Materials and methods A multicenter retrospective study was conducted on patients affected by OLP to evaluate the economic cost of managing the disease. Direct costs concerning diagnostic procedures, therapeutic management, and follow-up visits were obtained from clinical records. Statistics was performed with IBM SPSS Statistics. Results One hundred and eight patients with a confirmed diagnosis of OLP (81 women and 27 men), 58 Italians and 50 Finnish, were enrolled in this study. The mean annual cost was 1087.2 euros per patient. The mean annual cost was higher in Finnish than in Italian cohort (1558.7 euros vs. 680.7 euros—p < 0.05). Within the Italian cohort, the local immunosuppressive therapy group and atrophic and erosive OLP type had a higher cost (p < 0.05). Within the Finnish cohort, the local immunosuppressive therapy group had a higher cost (p < 0.05). Conclusions OLP-related costs are very similar to other chronic oral disorders (i.e., periodontitis) with differences between investigated countries. Moreover, patients with more severe clinical features, who need immunosuppressive therapy, are facing more expensive costs. Clinical relevance. In this multicenter cost of illness study, we estimated the direct health care costs of OLP and we found that patients with more severe clinical features, who therefore need symptomatic therapy, are facing more expensive costs.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
Farhad Hafezi ◽  
Mohammed Hosny ◽  
Rohit Shetty ◽  
Boris Knyazer ◽  
Shihao Chen ◽  

Abstract Background Infectious keratitis is a major cause of global blindness. We tested whether standalone photoactivated chromophore corneal cross-linking (PACK-CXL) may be an effective first-line treatment in early to moderate infectious keratitis, compared with standard antimicrobial treatment. Methods This is a randomized, controlled, multinational phase 3 clinical trial. Participants in five centers in Egypt, India, Iran, Israel, and China, aged ≥ 18 years, with infectious keratitis of presumed bacterial, fungal, or mixed origin, were randomly assigned (1:1) to PACK-CXL, or antimicrobial therapy. Outcomes measures included healing, defined as time to re-epithelialization of the corneal epithelial defect in the absence of inflammatory activity in the anterior chamber and clearance of stromal infiltrates. Treatment success was defined as the complete resolution of signs of infection. Results Between July 21, 2016, and March 4, 2020, participants were randomly assigned to receive PACK-CXL (n = 18) or antimicrobial therapy per American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) guidelines (n = 21). No participants were lost to follow-up. Four eyes were excluded from the epithelialization time analysis due to treatment failure: two in the antimicrobial therapy group, and two in the PACK-CXL group. Success rates were 88.9% (16/18 patients) in the PACK-CXL group and 90.5% (19/21 patients) in the medication group. There was no significant difference in time to complete corneal re-epithelialization (P = 0.828) between both treatment groups. Conclusions PACK-CXL may be an alternative to antimicrobial drugs for first-line and standalone treatment of early to moderate infectious keratitis of bacterial or fungal origin. Trial registration This trial is registered at, trial registration number: NCT02717871

Carolini Mendes ◽  
Rubya Zaccaron ◽  
Ligia Venturini ◽  
Laura Casagrande Casagrande ◽  

This study aimed to investigate the effects of iontophoresis with HA associated to GNPs solution in an epithelial lesion model. Fifty Wistar rats (n=10/group) were randomly assigned to the following groups: epithelial lesion (EL); (EL+MIC); (EL+MIC+HA); (EL+MIC+GNPs); (EL+MIC+HA-GNPs). The animals induced to an epithelial lesion and treatment started 24 hours after injury with microcurrents (300µA) containing gel with HA (0.9%) and/or GNPs (30mg/Kg) in the electrodes (1mL) for seven days. The animals were sacrificed 12 hours after the last treatment application. Results demonstrated a reduction in the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFNϒ, IL-1β, TNFα, IL6) in the group in which the therapies were combined; an increase in the levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-10) and growth factors (FGF, TGFβ) in EL+MIC+HA and EL+MIC+HA-GNPs groups. As for dichlorofluorescein (DCF) and nitrite levels, decreased in the combined therapy group when compared to the control group, as well as the oxidative damage (carbonyl and sulfhydryl). In antioxidant defense, there was an increase in glutathione (GSH) and a decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the combination therapy group. Histological analysis showed a reduction in the inflammatory infiltrate in groups treated with MIC and in the combination therapy group. An increase in contraction of the wound area was obtained in all treated groups when compared to the control group, proving that the proposed therapies are effective in the process of epithelial healing. The results of this study demonstrated that the associated therapies favor the tissue repair process more significantly compared to the isolated therapies.

Emme Chacko ◽  
Benjamin Ling ◽  
Nadav Avny ◽  
Yoram Barak ◽  
Sarah Cullum ◽  

The prevalence of dementia is increasing and the care needs of people living with dementia are rising. Family carers of people living with dementia are a high-risk group for psychological and physical health comorbidities. Mindfulness-based interventions such as mindfulness-based cognitive therapy show potential for reducing stress experienced by family carers of people living with dementia. This study aims to systematically assess the efficacy of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy in reducing stress experienced by family carers of people living with dementia. Electronic databases including MEDLINE, APA PsycINFO, EMBASE, CINAHL, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, AMED, ICTRP, and ALOIS were searched for relevant studies up to August 2020. All types of intervention studies were included. Quantitative findings were explored. Seven studies were eligible for inclusion. The analysis showed that there was a statistically significant reduction in self-rated carer stress in four studies for the mindfulness-based cognitive therapy group compared to controls. One study that was adequately powered also showed reductions in carer burden, depression, and anxiety compared to control. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy appears to be a potentially effective intervention for family carers of people living with dementia, but large, high-quality randomized controlled trials in ethnically diverse populations are required to evaluate its effectiveness.

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