curative intent
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Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 396
Kohei Ogawa ◽  
Yasutsugu Takada

Recently, there have been many reports of the usefulness of locoregional therapy such as transarterial chemoembolization and radiofrequency ablation for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) as pretreatment before liver transplantation (LT). Locoregional therapy is performed with curative intent in Japan, where living donor LT constitutes the majority of LT due to the critical shortage of deceased donors. However, in Western countries, where deceased donor LT is the main procedure, LT is indicated for early-stage HCC regardless of liver functional reserve, and locoregional therapy is used for bridging until transplantation to prevent drop-outs from the waiting list or for downstaging to treat patients with advanced HCC who initially exceed the criteria for LT. There are many reports of the effect of bridging and downstaging locoregional therapy before LT, and its indications and efficacy are becoming clear. Responses to locoregional therapy, such as changes in tumor markers, the avidity of FDG-PET, etc., are considered useful for successful bridging and downstaging. In this review, the effects of bridging and downstaging locoregional therapy as a pretransplant treatment on the results of transplantation are clarified, focusing on recent reports.

Janette L. Vardy ◽  
Andre Liew ◽  
Anne Warby ◽  
Alexander Elder ◽  
Itay Keshet ◽  

Abstract Background Studies in 1983 and 1993 identified and ranked symptoms experienced by cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. We repeated the studies to obtain updated information on patient perceptions of chemotherapy-associated symptoms. Patients and methods A cross-sectional interview and patient-reported outcome questionnaires were administered to out-patients receiving chemotherapy. Patients selected from 124 cards to identify and rank the severity of physical and non-physical symptoms they had experienced and attributed to chemotherapy (primary endpoint). The patient’s medical oncologist and primary chemotherapy nurse were invited to rank the five symptoms they believed the patient would rank as their most severe. We analysed the association of symptoms and their severity with patient demographics, chemotherapy regimen, and patient-reported outcomes. Results were compared to the earlier studies. Results Overall, 302 patients completed the interview: median age 58 years (range 17–85); 56% female; main tumour types colorectal 81 (27%), breast 67 (22%), lung 49 (16%); 45% treated with curative intent. Most common symptoms (reported by >50%) were: alopecia, general weakness, effects on family/partner, loss of taste, nausea, fatigue, difficulty sleeping, effects on work/home duties, and having to put life on hold. The most severe symptoms (ranked by >15% in top five) were: concern about effects on family/partner, nausea, fear of the future, fatigue, not knowing what will happen, putting my life on hold, and general weakness. Perceptions of doctors and nurses of patients’ symptom severity closely matched patients’ rankings. Conclusions Compared to earlier studies, there was an increase in non-physical concerns such as effects on family and future, and a decrease in physical symptoms, particularly vomiting, but nausea, fatigue and general weakness remained bothersome. Highlights • Symptoms related to chemotherapy have changed over time, likely due to less toxic regimens and improvements in supportive care. • Effects on family/partner, fear of the future, not knowing what will happen, and “life on hold” were major issues for patients. • Vomiting has decreased but nausea, fatigue and general weakness remain common symptoms for chemotherapy patients.

2022 ◽  
pp. 089875642110723
Matthew L. Raleigh ◽  
Mark M. Smith ◽  
Kendall Taney

Medical records were searched for dogs that had received curative intent surgery for oral malignant melanoma and ipsilateral excisional regional lymph node biopsy. Twenty-seven dogs were operated on and 25 dogs of these dogs met the inclusion criteria of signalment, post-excision margin status, presence of metastasis for each biopsied lymphocentrum, survival time post-excision, presence of recurrence or metastasis at follow-up or at death/euthanasia, location of the primary tumor, and any postoperative adjuvant treatment. These 25 dogs had complete tumor excision with tumor-free margins and 19 (76%) had postoperative adjuvant therapy. Median survival time after excision for the dogs in this study was 335.5 days. Results of this study support previous work that documents prolonged survival time following complete excision of oral malignant melanoma with tumor-free surgical margins in dogs. Additionally, 4 dogs (16%) had histologically confirmed regional lymph node metastasis at the time of definitive surgery.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 79
Tsung-Han Wu ◽  
Yu-Chao Wang ◽  
Hao-Chien Hung ◽  
Jin-Chiao Lee ◽  
Chia-Ying Wu ◽  

Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) occurring at the left lateral segment (LLS) is relatively susceptible to treatment with curative intent in terms of tumor location. However, outcomes might vary depending on the selection of treatment modalities. This study aimed to analyze patients who had undergone curative treatment for early HCC at LLS. Methods: A retrospective analysis of 179 patients who underwent curative treatment for early HCC at LLS was performed. Patients were grouped based on treatment modalities, including radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and liver resection (LR). The long-term outcomes of the two groups were compared. Additionally, the impact of the LR approach on patient outcomes was analyzed. Results: Among these patients, 60 received RFA and 119 underwent LR as primary treatment with curative intent. During follow-up, a significantly higher incidence of HCC recurrence was observed in the RFA group (37/60, 61.7%) than in the LR group (45/119, 37.8%) (p = 0.0025). The median time of HCC recurrence was 10.8 (range: 1.1–60.9 months) and 17.6 (range: 2.4–94.8 months) months in the RFA and LR groups, respectively. In addition, multivariate analysis showed that liver cirrhosis, multiple tumors, and RFA treatment were significant risk factors for HCC recurrence. The 1-, 2-, and 5-year overall survival rates in the RFA and LR groups were 96.4%, 92.2%, and 71.5% versus 97.3%, 93.6%, and 87.7%, respectively. (p = 0.047). Moreover, outcomes related to LR were comparable between laparoscopic and conventional open methods. The 1-, 2-, and 5-year recurrence free survival rates in the laparoscopic (n = 37) and conventional open (n = 82) LR groups were 94.1%, 82.0%, and 66.9% versus 86.1%, 74.6%, and 53.1%, respectively. (p = 0.506) Conclusion: Early HCC at LLS had satisfactory outcomes after curative treatment, in which LR seems to have a superior outcome, as compared to RFA treatment. Moreover, laparoscopic LR could be considered a preferential option in the era of minimally invasive surgery.

Thomas Reinert ◽  
Lena Marie Skindhøj Petersen ◽  
Tenna Vesterman Henriksen ◽  
Marie Øbo Larsen ◽  
Mads Heilskov Rasmussen ◽  

Bruna Pellini ◽  
Aadel A. Chaudhuri

Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) minimal residual disease (MRD) is a powerful biomarker with the potential to improve survival outcomes for non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Multiple groups have shown the ability to detect MRD following curative-intent NSCLC treatment using next-generation sequencing–based assays of plasma cell-free DNA. These studies have been modest in size, largely retrospective, and without thorough prospective clinical validation. Still, when restricting measurement to the first post-treatment timepoint to assess the clinical performance of ctDNA MRD detection, they have demonstrated sensitivity for predicting disease relapse ranging between 36% and 100%, and specificity ranging between 71% and 100%. When considering all post-treatment follow-up timepoints (surveillance), including those beyond the initial post-treatment measurement, these assays' performances improve with sensitivity and specificity for identifying relapse ranging from 82% to 100% and 70% to 100%, respectively. In this manuscript, we review the evidence available to date regarding ctDNA MRD detection in patients with NSCLC undergoing curative-intent treatment and the ongoing prospective studies involving ctDNA MRD detection in this patient population.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0261136
Eva Braunwarth ◽  
Peter Schullian ◽  
Moritz Kummann ◽  
Simon Reider ◽  
Daniel Putzer ◽  

Background To evaluate the efficacy, safety and overall clinical outcome of local treatment for recurrent intrahepatic cholangiocellular carcinoma after hepatic resection. Methods Between 2007 and 2019 72 consecutive patients underwent hepatic resection for primary intrahepatic cholangiocellular carcinoma. If amenable, recurrent tumors were aggressively treated by HR or stereotactic radiofrequency ablation with local curative intent. Endpoints consisted of morbidity and mortality, locoregional and de novo recurrence, disease free survival, and overall survival. Results After a median follow-up of 28 months, recurrence of intrahepatic cholangiocellular carcinoma was observed in 43 of 72 patients undergoing hepatic resection (60.3%). 16 patients were subsequently treated by hepatic resection (n = 5) and stereotactic radiofrequency ablation (n = 11) with local curative intention. The remaining 27 patients underwent palliative treatment for first recurrence. Overall survival of patients who underwent repeated aggressive liver-directed therapy was comparable to patients without recurrence (p = 0.938) and was better as compared to patients receiving palliative treatment (p = 0.018). The 5-year overall survival rates for patients without recurrence, the repeated liver-directed treatment group and the palliative treatment group were 54.3%, 47.7% and 12.3%, respectively. By adding stereotactic radiofrequency ablation as an alternative treatment option, the rate of curative re-treatment increased from 11.9% to 37.2%. Conclusion Repeated hepatic resection is often precluded due to patient morbidity or anatomical and functional limitations. Due to the application of stereotactic radiofrequency ablation in case of recurrent intrahepatic cholangiocellular carcinoma, the number of patients treated with curative intent can be increased. This leads to favorable clinical outcome as compared to palliative treatment of intrahepatic cholangiocellular carcinoma recurrence.

BMC Cancer ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Taija Korpela ◽  
Ari Ristimäki ◽  
Marianne Udd ◽  
Tiina Vuorela ◽  
Harri Mustonen ◽  

Abstract Background Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), one of the most lethal malignancies, is increasing in incidence. However, the stromal reaction pathophysiology and its role in PDAC development remain unknown. We, therefore, investigated the potential role of histological chronic pancreatitis findings and chronic inflammation on surgical PDAC specimens and disease-specific survival (DSS). Methods Between 2000 and 2016, we retrospectively enrolled 236 PDAC patients treated with curative-intent pancreatic surgery at Helsinki University Hospital. All pancreatic transection margin slides were re-reviewed and histological findings were evaluated applying international guidelines. Results DSS among patients with no fibrosis, acinar atrophy or chronic inflammation identified on pathology slides was significantly better than DSS among patients with fibrosis, acinar atrophy and chronic inflammation [median survival: 41.8 months, 95% confidence interval (CI) 26.0–57.6 vs. 20.6 months, 95% CI 10.3–30.9; log-rank test p = 0.001]. Multivariate analysis revealed that Ca 19–9 > 37 kU/l [hazard ratio (HR) 1.48, 95% CI 1.02–2.16], lymph node metastases N1–2 (HR 1.71, 95% CI 1.16–2.52), tumor size > 30 mm (HR 1.47, 95% CI 1.04–2.08), the combined effect of fibrosis and acinar atrophy (HR 1.91, 95% CI 1.27–2.88) and the combined effect of fibrosis, acinar atrophy and chronic inflammation (HR 1.63, 95% CI 1.03–2.58) independently served as unfavorable prognostic factors for DSS. However, we observed no significant associations between tumor size (> 30 mm) and the degree of perilobular fibrosis (p = 0.655), intralobular fibrosis (p = 0.587), acinar atrophy (p = 0.584) or chronic inflammation (p = 0.453). Conclusions Our results indicate that the pancreatic stroma is associated with PDAC patients’ DSS. Additionally, the more severe the fibrosis, acinar atrophy and chronic inflammation, the worse the impact on DSS, thereby warranting further studies investigating stroma-targeted therapies.

2022 ◽  
Vol 29 ◽  
pp. 107327482110452
Wen-Chi Chou ◽  
Cheng-Chou Lai ◽  
Chia-Yen Hung ◽  
Shun-Wen Hsueh ◽  
Kun-Yun Yeh ◽  

Background Whether the prevalence of frailty and its clinical significance are relevant to treatment outcomes in younger (aged < 65 years) cancer patients remains uncertain. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of frailty on treatment outcomes in younger cancer patients with head and neck and esophageal malignancy. Material and methods This multicenter prospective study recruited 502 patients with locally advanced head and neck and esophageal cancer during 2016–2017 in Taiwan, aged 20–64 years who received curative-intent concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) as first-line antitumor treatment. Baseline frailty assessment using geriatric assessment (GA) was performed for each patient within 7 days before CCRT initiation. Results Frailty was observed in 169 (33.7%) of 502 middle-aged patients. Frail patients had significantly higher incidences of chemotherapy incompletion (16.6% versus 3.3%, P < .001) and radiotherapy incompletion (16.6% versus 3.6%, P < .001) than fit patients. During CCRT, frail patients had a significantly higher percentage of hospitalizations (42.0% versus 24.6%, P < .001) and a trend toward a higher percentage of emergency room visits (37.9% versus 30.0%, P = .08) than fit patients. Frail patients more likely had a significantly higher incidence of grade ≥ 3 adverse events than fit patients during CCRT. The 1-year survival rate was 68.7% and 85.2% (hazard ratio 2.56, 95% confidence interval 1.80–3.63, P < .001) for frail and fit patients, respectively. Conclusions This study demonstrated the significance of pretreatment frailty on treatment tolerance, treatment-related toxicity, and survival outcome in younger patients with head and neck and esophageal cancer undergoing CCRT. While GA is commonly targeted toward the older population, frailty assessment by GA may also be utilized in younger patients for decision-making guidance and prognosis prediction.

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