error detection
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2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (POPL) ◽  
pp. 1-29
Azalea Raad ◽  
Josh Berdine ◽  
Derek Dreyer ◽  
Peter W. O'Hearn

Incorrectness separation logic (ISL) was recently introduced as a theory of under-approximate reasoning, with the goal of proving that compositional bug catchers find actual bugs. However, ISL only considers sequential programs. Here, we develop concurrent incorrectness separation logic (CISL), which extends ISL to account for bug catching in concurrent programs. Inspired by the work on Views, we design CISL as a parametric framework, which can be instantiated for a number of bug catching scenarios, including race detection, deadlock detection, and memory safety error detection. For each instance, the CISL meta-theory ensures the soundness of incorrectness reasoning for free, thereby guaranteeing that the bugs detected are true positives.

Entropy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 24 (1) ◽  
pp. 122
Svitlana Matsenko ◽  
Oleksiy Borysenko ◽  
Sandis Spolitis ◽  
Aleksejs Udalcovs ◽  
Lilita Gegere ◽  

Forward error correction (FEC) codes combined with high-order modulator formats, i.e., coded modulation (CM), are essential in optical communication networks to achieve highly efficient and reliable communication. The task of providing additional error control in the design of CM systems with high-performance requirements remains urgent. As an additional control of CM systems, we propose to use indivisible error detection codes based on a positional number system. In this work, we evaluated the indivisible code using the average probability method (APM) for the binary symmetric channel (BSC), which has the simplicity, versatility and reliability of the estimate, which is close to reality. The APM allows for evaluation and compares indivisible codes according to parameters of correct transmission, and detectable and undetectable errors. Indivisible codes allow for the end-to-end (E2E) control of the transmission and processing of information in digital systems and design devices with a regular structure and high speed. This study researched a fractal decoder device for additional error control, implemented in field-programmable gate array (FPGA) software with FEC for short-reach optical interconnects with multilevel pulse amplitude (PAM-M) modulated with Gray code mapping. Indivisible codes with natural redundancy require far fewer hardware costs to develop and implement encoding and decoding devices with a sufficiently high error detection efficiency. We achieved a reduction in hardware costs for a fractal decoder by using the fractal property of the indivisible code from 10% to 30% for different n while receiving the reciprocal of the golden ratio.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Tam Vu ◽  
Alexander Vallmitjana ◽  
Joshua Gu ◽  
Kieu La ◽  
Qi Xu ◽  

AbstractMultiplexed mRNA profiling in the spatial context provides new information enabling basic research and clinical applications. Unfortunately, existing spatial transcriptomics methods are limited due to either low multiplexing or complexity. Here, we introduce a spatialomics technology, termed Multi Omic Single-scan Assay with Integrated Combinatorial Analysis (MOSAICA), that integrates in situ labeling of mRNA and protein markers in cells or tissues with combinatorial fluorescence spectral and lifetime encoded probes, spectral and time-resolved fluorescence imaging, and machine learning-based decoding. We demonstrate MOSAICA’s multiplexing scalability in detecting 10-plex targets in fixed colorectal cancer cells using combinatorial labeling of five fluorophores with facile error-detection and removal of autofluorescence. MOSAICA’s analysis is strongly correlated with sequencing data (Pearson’s r = 0.96) and was further benchmarked using RNAscopeTM and LGC StellarisTM. We further apply MOSAICA for multiplexed analysis of clinical melanoma Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded (FFPE) tissues. We finally demonstrate simultaneous co-detection of protein and mRNA in cancer cells.

2022 ◽  
Vol 72 (1) ◽  
pp. 40-48
K.H. Kochaleema ◽  
G. Santhosh Kumar

This paper discusses a Unified Modelling Language (UML) based formal verification methodology for early error detection in the model-based software development cycle. Our approach proposes a UML-based formal verification process utilising functional and behavioural modelling artifacts of UML. It reinforces these artifacts with formal model transition and property verification. The main contribution is a UML to Labelled Transition System (LTS) Translator application that automatically converts UML Statecharts to formal models. Property specifications are derived from system requirements and corresponding Computational Tree Logic (CTL)/Linear Temporal Logic (LTL) model checking procedure verifies property entailment in LTS. With its ability to verify CTL and LTL specifications, the methodology becomes generic for verifying all types of embedded system behaviours. The steep learning curve associated with formal methods is avoided through the automatic formal model generation and thus reduces the reluctance of using formal methods in software development projects. A case study of an embedded controller used in military applications validates the methodology. It establishes how the methodology finds its use in verifying the correctness and consistency of UML models before implementation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 463
Mikhail Babenko ◽  
Anton Nazarov ◽  
Maxim Deryabin ◽  
Nikolay Kucherov ◽  
Andrei Tchernykh ◽  

Error detection and correction codes based on redundant residue number systems are powerful tools to control and correct arithmetic processing and data transmission errors. Decoding the magnitude and location of a multiple error is a complex computational problem: it requires verifying a huge number of different possible combinations of erroneous residual digit positions in the error localization stage. This paper proposes a modified correcting method based on calculating the approximate weighted characteristics of modular projections. The new procedure for correcting errors and restoring numbers in a weighted number system involves the Chinese Remainder Theorem with fractions. This approach calculates the rank of each modular projection efficiently. The ranks are used to calculate the Hamming distances. The new method speeds up the procedure for correcting multiple errors and restoring numbers in weighted form by an average of 18% compared to state-of-the-art analogs.

Somayeh Sadeghi-Kohan ◽  
Sybille Hellebrand ◽  
Hans-Joachim Wunderlich

AbstractSafety-critical systems have to follow extremely high dependability requirements as specified in the standards for automotive, air, and space applications. The required high fault coverage at runtime is usually obtained by a combination of concurrent error detection or correction and periodic tests within rather short time intervals. The concurrent scheme ensures the integrity of computed results while the periodic test has to identify potential aging problems and to prevent any fault accumulation which may invalidate the concurrent error detection mechanism. Such periodic built-in self-test (BIST) schemes are already commercialized for memories and for random logic. The paper at hand extends this approach to interconnect structures. A BIST scheme is presented which targets interconnect defects before they will actually affect the system functionality at nominal speed. A BIST schedule is developed which significantly reduces aging caused by electromigration during the lifetime application of the periodic test.

2022 ◽  
Alejandro Thérèse Navarro ◽  
Peter M. Bourke ◽  
Eric van de Weg ◽  
Paul Arens ◽  
Richard Finkers ◽  

Abstract Linkage mapping is an approach to order markers based on recombination events. Mapping algorithms cannot easily handle genotyping errors, which are common in high-throughput genotyping data. To solve this issue, strategies have been developed, aimed mostly at identifying and eliminating these errors. One such strategy is SMOOTH (van Os et al. 2005), an iterative algorithm to detect genotyping errors. Unlike other approaches, SMOOTH can also be used to impute the most probable alternative genotypes, but its application is limited to diploid species and to markers heterozygous in only one of the parents. In this study we adapted SMOOTH to expand its use to any marker type and to autopolyploids with the use of identity-by-descent probabilities, naming the updated algorithm Smooth Descent (SD). We applied SD to real and simulated data, showing that in the presence of genotyping errors this method produces better genetic maps in terms of marker order and map length. SD is particularly useful for error rates between 5% and 20% and when error rates are not homogeneous among markers or individuals. Moreover, the simplicity of the algorithm allows thousands of markers to be efficiently processed, thus being particularly useful for error detection in high-density datasets. We have implemented this algorithm in the R package SmoothDescent.

2022 ◽  
Vol 148 ◽  
pp. 106768
Kaihua Cui ◽  
Qian Liu ◽  
Xiaojin Huang ◽  
Hui Zhang ◽  
Lulu Li

Mahmudul Hasan Sarker ◽  
Most. Ayesha Khatun Rima ◽  
Md. Abdur Rahman ◽  
A. B. M. Naveed Hossain ◽  
Noibedya Narayan Ray ◽  

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