therapeutic strategy
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 427-431
Author(s):  
Wenju Yan ◽  
Yan Li ◽  
Gaiqin Li ◽  
Luhua Yin ◽  
Huanyi Zhang ◽  
...  

Cardiovascular diseases, including congenital and acquired cardiovascular diseases, impose a severe burden on healthcare systems worldwide. Although bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs) therapy can be an effective therapeutic strategy for the heart disease, relatively low abundance, difficult accessibility, and small tissue volume hinder the clinical usefulness. Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) show similar potential with BMSCs to differentiate into lineages and tissues, such as smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, and adipocytes, with attractiveness of obtaining adipose tissue easily and repeatedly, and a simple separation procedure. We briefly summarize the current understanding of the cardiomyocytes differentiated from ADSCs


Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 440
Author(s):  
Clara Martori ◽  
Lidia Sanchez-Moral ◽  
Tony Paul ◽  
Juan Carlos Pardo ◽  
Albert Font ◽  
...  

Prostate cancer (PC) is the most common malignancy and the fifth cause of cancer death in men. The treatment for localized or locally advanced stages offers a high probability of cure. Even though the therapeutic landscape has significantly improved over the last decade, metastatic PC (mPC) still has a poor prognosis mainly due to the development of therapy resistance. In this context, the use of immunotherapy alone or in combination with other drugs has been explored in recent years. However, T-cell directed immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have shown limited activity with inconclusive results in mPC patients, most likely due to the highly immunosuppressive PC tumor microenvironment (TME). In this scenario, targeting macrophages, a highly abundant immunosuppressive cell type in the TME, could offer a new therapeutic strategy to improve immunotherapy efficacy. In this review, we summarize the growing field of macrophage-directed immunotherapies and discuss how these could be applied in the treatment of mPC, focusing on their combination with ICIs.


2022 ◽  
Vol 01 ◽  
Author(s):  
Sayani Ghosh ◽  
Prasun Patra

Abstract: In many previous studies, it has been found that liquorice plant (Glycyrrhiza glabra) extracts contain more than 300 natural compounds, most of which are triterpenoids and flavonoids, and had shown promising results in clinical studies for treating many microbial and viral infections. Triterpenoids like glycyrrhizic acid have shown anti-SARS-CoV activity in- vitro. Experimentally, certain glycyrrhizic acid derivatives have shown increased activity by many folds against SARS-associated viruses. These compounds can potentially inhibit the replication cycle of SARS-associated viruses by interfering with the viral gene expression or by inhibiting the spike protein expression, which in turn inhibits the adhesion and entry of the virus. Although the therapeutic has shown great antiviral activity in vitro, but in vivo its efficiency deteriorates till it reaches the liver for metabolism. In the current review, we analyze the unique replication strategy of SARS-CoV-2 and glycyrrhizic acid as a potential drug against SARS-CoV-2. We also discuss possible nano-formulations of glycyrrhizic acid for efficient drug delivery in humans, as a potent therapeutic strategy for COVID-19.


Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 383
Author(s):  
Jianlin Zhu ◽  
Lu Wang ◽  
Fan Liu ◽  
Jinghua Pan ◽  
Zhimeng Yao ◽  
...  

Abnormal angiogenesis is one of the important hallmarks of colorectal cancer as well as other solid tumors. Optimally, anti-angiogenesis therapy could restrain malignant angiogenesis to control tumor expansion. PELP1 is as a scaffolding oncogenic protein in a variety of cancer types, but its involvement in angiogenesis is unknown. In this study, PELP1 was found to be abnormally upregulated and highly coincidental with increased MVD in CRC. Further, treatment with conditioned medium (CM) from PELP1 knockdown CRC cells remarkably arrested the function of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) compared to those treated with CM from wildtype cells. Mechanistically, the STAT3/VEGFA axis was found to mediate PELP1-induced angiogenetic phenotypes of HUVECs. Moreover, suppression of PELP1 reduced tumor growth and angiogenesis in vivo accompanied by inactivation of STAT3/VEGFA pathway. Notably, in vivo, PELP1 suppression could enhance the efficacy of chemotherapy, which is caused by the normalization of vessels. Collectively, our findings provide a preclinical proof of concept that targeting PELP1 to decrease STAT3/VEGFA-mediated angiogenesis and improve responses to chemotherapy due to normalization of vessels. Given the newly defined contribution to angiogenesis of PELP1, targeting PELP1 may be a potentially ideal therapeutic strategy for CRC as well as other solid tumors.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Geetika Aggarwal ◽  
Subhashis Banerjee ◽  
Spencer A. Jones ◽  
Monica D. Pavlack ◽  
Yousri Benchaar ◽  
...  

Loss-of-function GRN mutations result in progranulin haploinsufficiency and are a common cause of frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) are emerging as a promising therapeutic modality for neurological diseases, but ASO-based strategies for increasing target protein levels are still relatively limited. Here, we report the use of ASOs to increase progranulin protein levels by targeting the miR-29b binding site in the 3′ UTR of the GRN mRNA, resulting in increased translation.


Hemato ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 63-81
Author(s):  
Emilie Arnault Carneiro ◽  
Filipa Barahona ◽  
Carolina Pestana ◽  
Cristina João

Multiple myeloma (MM) is the second deadliest hematological cancer. Despite the enormous innovation on MM treatment in the last decades, still 48% of patients die within 5 years after diagnosis. MM diagnosis and therapeutic strategy mainly rely on direct bone marrow (BM) assessment. Given the MM heterogeneity, BM biopsies do not accurately reflect the whole disease status, hampering accurate disease prognosis. Moreover, biopsies are painful and invasive procedures, highlighting the need for non-invasive and more accurate source of biomarkers. Liquid biopsies are promising sources of biomarkers that may overcome these limitations. Peripheral blood carries circulating myeloma components that are being extensively explored since the last few years as an alternative to BM aspirates. These include circulating tumor cells (CTC), cell-free DNA (cfDNA), and extracellular vesicles containing miRNA and proteins. The current review summarizes scientific evidence establishing BM as a gold standard for the diagnosis, prognosis, and evaluation of minimal residual disease. We discuss the last advances regarding cfDNA and CTC biomarkers from peripheral blood in patients with MM as well as the statistical validations. This paper addresses the technological hurdles associated with liquid biopsies and examines the missing steps for their inclusion into the clinical practice.


Author(s):  
Katharina Joechle ◽  
Jessica Guenzle ◽  
Stefan Utzolino ◽  
Stefan Fichtner-Feigl ◽  
Lampros Kousoulas

Abstract Purpose Although Ogilvie’s syndrome was first described about 70 years ago, its etiology and pathogenesis are still not fully understood. But more importantly, it is also not clear when to approach which therapeutic strategy. Methods Patients who were diagnosed with Ogilvie’s syndrome at our institution in a 17-year time period (2002–2019) were included and retrospectively evaluated regarding different therapeutical strategies: conservative, endoscopic, or surgical. Results The study included 71 patients with 21 patients undergoing conservative therapy, 25 patients undergoing endoscopic therapy, and 25 patients undergoing surgery. However, 38% of patients (n = 8) who were primarily addressed for conservative management failed and had to undergo endoscopy or even surgery. Similarly, 8 patients (32%) with primarily endoscopic treatment had to proceed for surgery. In logistic regression analysis, only a colon diameter ≥ 11 cm (p = 0.01) could predict a lack of therapeutic success by endoscopic treatment. Ninety-day mortality and overall survival were comparable between the groups. Conclusion As conservative and endoscopic management fail in about one-third of patients, a cutoff diameter ≥ 11 cm may be an adequate parameter to evaluate surgical therapy.


Designs ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 5
Author(s):  
Traian V. Chirila ◽  
Shuko Suzuki

This study was aimed at generating data for designing a potential method to prevent the rupture of the abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). We found that the mechanical strength and stiffness of blood vessel walls was enhanced by the crosslinking of adventitial collagen through a photochemical process promoted by ultraviolet-A (UV-A) radiation. The experiments were carried out on samples isolated from 25 normal porcine aortas. The adventitial layer was separated from the other layers and exposed to UV radiation of 365-nm wavelength, in the presence of a riboflavin compound as the photosensitizer. Mechanical testing of 30 specimens, prior to and after exposure, indicated an increase in both strength (ultimate stress) and stiffness (Young’s modulus) of the adventitial specimens following irradiation. The crosslinking process also led to an enhanced resistance to experimental collagenolysis, as determined on six specimens. At this phase of conceptual design, we suggest that by applying this method to an aneurysmal dilated wall region, the stabilization of tunica adventitia may delay or prevent the rupture of the aneurysm and, with further investigation and refinement, can become a therapeutic strategy for arresting the progression of AAA.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Piyush Baindara ◽  
Dinata Roy ◽  
Santi M. Mandal

Abstract COVID-19 pandemic is continue with thousands of new cases every day around the world, even then different vaccines have been developed and proven efficacious against SARS-CoV-2. Several know antivirals drugs have been repurposed or tested against SARS-CoV-2 but we still don’t have an effective therapeutic strategy to control this viral infection. Moreover, in the race of finding out an efficient antiviral, excess uses of antiviral drugs developed a selective pressure on the virus that results in the high frequency of mutations and the possible emergence of antiviral drug resistance against SARS-CoV-2. Omicron is a recently emerged, highly mutated variant of SARS-CoV-2, reported for high infectivity. In the present study, we performed molecular docking analysis between available potential antiviral drugs (remdesivir, nirmatrelvir, molnupiravir, EIDD-1931, GS-441524, and favipiravir) and omicron S protein including S protein/ACE2 complex. Our results suggest high infectivity of omicron, however, the known antiviral drugs were found efficacious against omicron variant. Further, to investigate the high infectivity of omicron, we performed a docking experiment between omicron S protein and neuropilin1 (NRP1). Surprisingly, results suggest high affinities with NRP1 than ACE2. Overall, results suggest that omicron favors NRP1 binding over ACE2, the possible reason behind improved infectivity of omicron variant.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Polymnia Georgiou ◽  
Ta-Chung M Mou ◽  
Liam E Potter ◽  
Xiaoxian An ◽  
Panos Zanos ◽  
...  

In susceptible populations, stress is a major risk factor for the development of mental disorders, including depression. Estradiol, often considered a female hormone, is distributed in the male brain via aromatization of testosterone. The role of estrogen receptors (ERs) in male stress susceptibility and depression is not well understood. We found that absence of ERβ is associated with susceptibility to stress in male mice and that activity of ERβ-projecting neurons from the basolateral amygdala to nucleus accumbens is reduced in hypogonadal mice subjected to stress, while activation of this circuit reverses stress-induced maladaptive behaviors. We identified that absence of estradiol, but not testosterone per se, underlies stress susceptibility and that brain-selective delivery of estradiol prevents the development of depression-related behaviors. Our findings provide evidence for an estrogen-based mechanism underlying stress susceptibility and offer an unexpected therapeutic strategy for treating depression in males.


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