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Peace C. Okpala ◽  
Carrie Rosario ◽  
Melissa J. Dupont-Reyes ◽  
Michelle Y. Martin Romero ◽  
Md Towfiqul Alam ◽  

Introduction: Young adults are the second largest segment of the immigrant population in the United States (US). Given recent trends in later age of initiation of tobacco use, we examined variation in use of tobacco products by nativity status for this population group. Methods: Our study included young adults 18-30 years of age sampled in the National Health Interview Survey (2015-2019), a nationally representative sample of the US population. We calculated prevalence of use of any and 2 or more tobacco products (cigarettes, cigars, pipes, e-cigarettes, and smokeless tobacco) for foreign-born (n=3,096) and US-born (n=6,811) young adults. Logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, race-ethnicity, education, and poverty, while accounting for the complex survey design. Results: Foreign-born young adults were significantly less likely to use any tobacco product (Cigarette = 7.3% vs 10.7%; Cigar= 1.8% vs 4.8%; E-cigarette= 2.3% vs 4.5%, respectively; p<0.01) or poly tobacco use (1.9% vs. 4.2%; p<0.01) than US-born young adults. Adjusted regression models showed lower odds of poly tobacco use among the foreign-born than their US-born counterparts (Odds Ratio = 0.41, (95% Confidence Interval: 0.26-0.63)). Conclusion: Findings highlight the importance of targeted interventions by nativity status and further tobacco prevention efforts needed for the US-born.

Tarannum Behlim ◽  
Olga Basso ◽  
Tracey Bushnik ◽  
Michael S. Kramer ◽  
Jay S. Kaufman ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 ◽  
Keren Semyonov-Tal ◽  
Dina Maskileyson

The study focuses on sources for health gaps between Jewish immigrants and native-born Israelis. Unlike traditional immigrant societies where immigration is viewed as economically motivated, immigrants returning to Israel are viewed as the “returning diaspora”. Because immigrants in Israel are entitled to the same health benefits and medical services as native-born, we expect Israel to attract unhealthy immigrants in disproportionate numbers. The data for the analysis are obtained from the Israeli National Health Interview Survey (2013–2015). The data set provides detailed information on health status and illness, sociodemographic attributes and origin of immigrants. Three major origin groups of immigrants are distinguished: the former Soviet Union, Western Europeans or the Americans (mostly Ashkenazim), and Asians or North Africans (mostly Sephardim). Our findings lend support to the expectations that the health status of all immigrant groups is poorer than that of native-born Israelis. The nativity–illness gap is most pronounced in the case of male immigrants (from Europe or the Americas or South Africa or Australia) and for female immigrants (from countries in the Middle East or North Africa) and least pronounced in the case of immigrants arriving from the former Soviet Union for both gender groups. Decomposition of the gaps into components reveals that some portion of the illness gap can be attributed to nativity status, but the largest portion of the gap is attributed to demographic characteristics. Neither socioeconomic status nor health-related behavior accounts for a substantial portion of the nativity–illness gap for all subgroups of immigrants.

Syeda Ammara Shaharyar ◽  
Eduardo Bernabé ◽  
Elsa Karina Delgado-Angulo

The role of migration as a social determinant of periodontitis has been overlooked. Intersectionality theory could help understand how immigration status interacts with other social determinants of health to engender inequalities in periodontitis. The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether ethnicity, nativity status and socioeconomic position intersect to structure social inequalities in periodontal status. Data from 1936 adults in a deprived and multi-ethnic area of London were analysed. The numbers of teeth with probing depth and clinical attachment loss were determined from clinical examinations. A matrix with 51 intersectional strata, defined according to ethnicity, nativity status and education, was created. A cross-classified multilevel analysis, with participants clustered within intersectional social strata, was performed to assess the extent to which individual differences in periodontal measures were at the intersectional strata level. A complex pattern of social inequalities in periodontal status was found, which was characterised by high heterogeneity between strata and outcome-specificity. The variance partition coefficient of the simple intersectional model, which conflated additive and interaction effects, indicated that 3–5% of the observed variation in periodontal measures was due to between-stratum differences. Moreover, the percentual change in variance from the simple intersectional to the intersectional interaction model indicated that 73–74% of the stratum-level variance in periodontal measures was attributed to the additive effects of ethnicity, nativity status and education. This study found modest evidence of intersectionality among ethnicity, nativity status and education in relation to periodontal status.

2021 ◽  
pp. 089011712110344
Adolfo G. Cuevas ◽  
Michael V. Stanton ◽  
Keri Carvalho ◽  
Natalie Eckert ◽  
Kasim Ortiz ◽  

Purpose: Obesity is a public health issue in the United States (US), that disproportionately affects marginalized group members. Stressful life events (SLE) have been implicated as an obesogenic risk factor. However, there is scant research examining of the role of nativity status and length of residence in the relationship between SLE and obesity. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Sample: A total of 34,653 participants were included in these analyses, of whom 10,169 (29.39%) had obesity. Measures: Obesity (measured using body mass index), stressful life events, race/ethnicity, gender, educational attainment, family income, marital status, current smoking status, and alcohol abuse. Analysis: Weighted logistic regression analysis. Results: A total of 10,169 (29.39%) had obesity. There was a significant interaction between SLE and nativity status/length of residence [F (3, 34,642) = 60.50, p < 0.01]. Based on stratified analyses, SLE were associated with greater odds of obesity for US-born individuals (OR = 1.07; 95% CI [1.05, 1.08]) and foreign-born individuals living in the US for ≥ 20 years (OR = 1.17; 95% CI [1.10, 1.25]). There was no evidence that SLE were associated with greater odds of obesity for foreign-born individuals living in the US <10 years (OR = 1.06; 95% CI [0.94, 1.21]) and 11-19 years (OR = 1.00; 95% CI [0.91, 1.09]). Conclusions: Number of SLE may be a risk factor for obesity, particularly for US-born adults and foreign-born adults living the US >20 years. Further research is needed to understand the pathways that may link SLE to obesity among these groups.

Faven Araya ◽  
Jeanette A. Stingone ◽  
Luz Claudio

Exposure levels to environmental pollutants vary significantly among different populations. These inequities in exposure to hazardous air pollutants (HAP) among different populations can contribute to disparities in neurodevelopmental outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine if exposure to HAP varies by maternal nativity status, a demographic marker often overlooked in the study of health disparities. We also assessed if those inequalities in exposure levels are associated with neurodevelopmental measures in young children. To do this, we obtained data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth cohort (ECLS-B), a nationally representative sample of children born in the U.S. in the year 2001 (N = 4750). Bayley’s Short Form-Research Edition (BSF-R) was used to measure cognitive development at 2 years of age. Using residential location at nine months of age, participants were assigned exposures to ten HAPs identified as potentially neurotoxic. Linear regression models were used to assess the joint effect of maternal nativity status and HAP exposure on neurodevelopment. Results showed inequities in exposure levels to ten different HAPs among the populations, as approximately 32% of children of foreign-born mothers were exposed to high levels of HAPs, compared to 21% of children born to U.S.-born mothers. Adjusting for socioeconomic factors, both isophorone exposure (a marker of industrial pollution) (−0.04, 95% CI, -0.12, 0.04) and maternal nativity status (−0.17, 95% CI, −0.27, −0.06) were independently associated with lower standardized BSF-R mental scores in children. Interaction between nativity status and isophorone was not statistically significant, but the change in mental scores associated with isophorone exposure was greater in children of foreign-born mothers compared to children of U.S.-born mothers (−0.12, vs. −0.03, p = 0.2). In conclusion, exposure to HAPs within the highest quartile was more commonly found among children of foreign-born mothers as compared to children of US-born mothers, indicating inequities in pollutant exposure by nativity status within urban populations. Exposures associated with nativity status may negatively contribute to children’s neurodevelopment.

Jacob S. Rugh

Latino youth housing conditions have transformed dramatically over the past 20 years. Rates of household crowding have plummeted, nearly all Latino children are U.S.-born citizens, and broadband Internet access is widespread. However, Latino youth remain disadvantaged and their housing conditions remain understudied as they come of age in an era of housing crises, from foreclosures, evictions, to the novel coronavirus pandemic. This article examines Latino youth housing conditions since 2000, including crowding and mixed-nativity/status households. Multivariate analyses of national data show that eviction, foreclosure, and a representative zip code sample of COVID-19 case rates are strongly linked to the housing conditions of Latino youth. The article illustrates these links by analyzing and mapping eviction rates, foreclosure rates, and zip code coronavirus cases in the census tracts of Maricopa County, Arizona. The results underscore the urgent need for policies that invest in housing Latino youth to ensure that progress of the last 20 years is lasting.

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