hispanic patients
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Maria Luisa Gois da Fonsêca ◽  
Raul N. G. Vianna ◽  
Anna C. H. Rocha ◽  
Antonio M. B. Casella ◽  
Arnaldo Cialdini ◽  

Abstract Background Birdshot retinochoroiditis (BRC) is a rare and chronic bilateral uveitis mostly found in Caucasians. As few data are available about the clinical course of BRC in Hispanic patients, we aimed to report the clinical findings and the evolution of BRC in Brazilian patients. Methods This retrospective cohort multicenter nationwide study was performed by analyzing the records of patients with BRC diagnoses from Brazilian ophthalmological centers from April 1995 to May 2020. Results Forty patients (80 eyes) with a diagnosis of BRC were evaluated. The mean age was 53 years, and there was no sex predominance. All tested patients (34/40) were positive for HLA-A29. The diagnosis of BRC was made following the Levinson et al. criteria, and all ancillary tests were performed to exclude differential diagnoses. Clinical signs and symptoms, such as complications and treatment, were described. Conclusions BRC evolution in Brazilian patients seems to have some peculiarities that diverge from the published literature available about Caucasians, as AS inflammation is higher in this population.

Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 283
Michael LaPelusa ◽  
Chan Shen ◽  
Nina D. Arhin ◽  
Dana Cardin ◽  
Marcus Tan ◽  

Background: Early-onset pancreatic cancer (EOPC) is relatively uncommon. It is unclear if the incidence of EOPC is evolving and how these patients are treated. Methods: We conducted a retrospective, population-based study using SEER 2004–2016. We evaluated annual age-adjusted incidence rate (AAIR), stage at presentation, and race/ethnicity among 7802 patients plus treatment patterns in 7307 patients (excluding neuroendocrine tumors) younger than 50. Results: The AAIR was higher in males while the rate increased faster in females. The AAIR was highest in Non-Hispanic Black patients and increased for all races/ethnicities over time. The percentage of patients diagnosed with distant-stage disease decreased over time but increased for localized-stage disease. Hispanic patients made up a larger proportion of patients over time compared to other groups. For localized-stage disease, primary surgery alone was the most utilized modality of therapy. For regional-stage disease, chemotherapy with radiation was the most utilized modality from 2004–2010, whereas chemotherapy alone was the most utilized from 2011–2016. For distant-stage disease, chemotherapy alone was the most utilized and used increasingly over time. Patients with EOPC received radiation and chemotherapy at similar rates to, and underwent surgery more frequently, than patients 50–69. Conclusions: The AAIR of EOPC increased over time, faster so in females. Groups who experience a higher burden of pancreatic cancer, particularly African Americans, experienced a higher burden of EOPC. Treatment of localized and regional-stage disease did not follow standard treatment guidelines for pancreatic cancer. Our findings indicate that EOPC patients received more treatment than their older counterparts.

Corey A. Kalbaugh ◽  
Brian Witrick ◽  
Laksika Banu Sivaraj ◽  
Katharine L. McGinigle ◽  
Catherine R. Lesko ◽  

Background Racial and ethnic disparities in outcomes following lower limb revascularization for peripheral artery disease have been ascribed to disease severity at presentation for surgery. Methods and Results We calculated 1‐year risk of major adverse limb events (MALEs), major amputation, and death for patients undergoing elective revascularization for claudication or chronic limb‐threatening ischemia in the Vascular Quality Initiative data (2011–2018). We report hazard ratios according to race and ethnicity using Cox (death) or Fine and Gray subdistribution hazards models (MALE and major amputation, treating death as a competing event), adjusted for patient, treatment, and anatomic factors associated with disease severity. Among 88 599 patients (age, 69 years; 37% women), 1‐year risk of MALE (major amputation and death) was 12.8% (95% CI, 12.5–13.0) in 67 651 White patients, 16.5% (95% CI, 5.8–7.8) in 15 442 Black patients, and 17.2% (95% CI, 5.6–6.9) in 5506 Hispanic patients. Compared with White patients, we observed an increased hazard of poor limb outcomes among Black (MALE: 1.17; 95% CI, 1.12–1.22; amputation: 1.52; 95% CI, 1.39–1.65) and Hispanic (MALE: 1.22; 95% CI, 1.14–1.31; amputation: 1.45; 95% CI, 1.28–1.64) patients. However, Black and Hispanic patients had a hazard of death of 0.85 (95% CI, 0.79–0.91) and 0.71 (95% CI, 0.63–0.79) times the hazard among White patients, respectively. Worse limb outcomes were observed among Black and Hispanic patients across subcohorts of claudication and chronic limb‐threatening ischemia. Conclusions Black and Hispanic patients undergoing infrainguinal revascularization for chronic limb‐threatening ischemia and claudication had worse limb outcomes compared with White patients, even with similar disease severity at presentation. Additional investigation aimed at eliminating disparate limb outcomes is needed.

Maximiliano Barrera-Sánchez ◽  
Rosa E. Martinez-Muñoz ◽  
Raul E. Ruiz-Lozano ◽  
Catharina Busch ◽  
Juan Homar Paez-Garza ◽  

Abstract Background/Aim To describe demographic and clinical characteristics, treatment, and visual prognosis of Coats disease in Hispanic patients. Methods A retrospective chart review was performed on nine patients (ten eyes) diagnosed with Coats disease in our two clinical centrers from 2004 – 2017. Results Mean age at diagnosis was 5.5 years (range 1 – 12 years) and mean follow-up time was 48 months (range 9 – 108 months). Eight patients (89%) were male and had unilateral disease and one (11%) female patient had bilateral disease. In 40% of the cases, patients were asymptomatic. Visual acuity at first presentation was worse than hand motion in 60% of the eyes. Half of the eyes (5/10 eyes, 50%) had exudative retinal detachment (≥ stage IIIA). Vascular ablation with cryotherapy combined with retinal photocoagulation was the most frequent therapeutic approach (40%). Despite anatomical success at 6 months in 100% of the treated eyes, visual outcome at 1 year of treatment was poor (worse than 20/200) in 70% of the cases. Conclusions In our case series, patients were mostly asymptomatic on presentation, with severe stages of Coats disease. Even with anatomical success after surgical treatment in all treated cases, long-term visual prognosis remained very limited.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
Sophia Bertot ◽  
Louis Cantor

Background and Hypothesis: Glaucoma is a group of progressive optic neuropathies characterized by a degeneration of retinal ganglion cells with characteristic changes in the visual field. The Los Angeles Latino Eye Study (LALES) is the largest and most recent study to determine the prevalence of open-angle glaucoma in Hispanics; reported at nearly 5%. Between 2010 – 2019, Hispanic patients accounted for more than half of the United States population growth, reaching a record of 60.6 million Hispanics living in the United States. With an influx of Hispanic’s migrating to the United States, there is an increased need for medical interpreters to assist medical professionals in encounters with Hispanic patients. The success of a medical encounter relies on a multitude of factors, but when a medical interpreter is involved, the stakes are even higher. We hypothesize that Hispanic speaking patients will have lower rates of understanding their glaucoma diagnosis and severity, in comparison to English speaking patients due to gaps in translation provided by medical interpreters.  Project Methods: Native Spanish and native English-speaking patients from the Eskenazi Health Eye Clinic were recruited via phone, reminding them of their upcoming eye appointment and their eligibility to participate in the study. Interested patients were provided with information regarding the study and consent materials at the start of the medical encounter. Participants who consented were administered the survey at the end of their medical encounter, in their preferred language, in person, at the clinic.  Results: This is an ongoing prospective study.  Potential Impact: This study will determine if medical interpreters successfully relay all the necessary information regarding a Hispanic patient’s glaucoma diagnosis. This study could also provide a partial explanation as to why there is a high no show rate and high medication noncompliance rate within the Eskenazi Health Eye Clinic Hispanic population. 

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (Supplement_1) ◽  
pp. 238-238
Renae Smith-Ray ◽  
Tanya Singh ◽  
Evie Makris ◽  
Jaime Horan ◽  
Michael Taitel

Abstract The COVID-19 pandemic and Black Lives Matter movement brought increased recognition to the need for health equity. Diabetes, the 7th leading cause of death, is one of many conditions where health inequities are evident. A higher percentage of Black (11.7%) and Hispanic (12.5%) U.S. adults are diagnosed with diabetes compared to non-Hispanic Whites (7.5%). To address this health inequity, a nationwide pharmacy chain implemented telephonic ‘Advanced Care’ (AC) outreach for patients with diabetes. During the AC call, pharmacists used motivational interviewing techniques to counsel patients on the importance of closing gaps in care and reducing barriers to medication adherence. Gaps included timely A1C testing, exams (eye, foot, kidney), immunizations (influenza, pneumonia, Hepatitis B), and recommendation of additional therapies for patients with multiple chronic conditions (ACE/ARB, statins). Medication fill gaps were compared between the Intervention period (8/1/20-1/31/-21) and a pre-intervention period (2/1/20-7/31/20). The AC pilot occurred in 8 Chicago Walgreens locations that primarily serve Black and Hispanic patients. Eight control stores were matched on census block-level household income and race/ethnicity, patient volume, and insurance mix. A pre/post-test vs. control difference-in-difference (DID) analysis was conducted to compare on-time refill rates. Of the 1,009 older patients (age≥50) called, 59.9% were reached. The DID analysis showed that patients in pilot stores had improved pre-post on-time refill rates compared to controls (p<0.0001). Diabetes self-management is key to reducing diabetes-related complications. Early findings from this pilot demonstrate that the Walgreens AC intervention improves medication adherence - an important step toward improving health equity.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Katherine Sanchez ◽  
Brittany H. Eghaneyan ◽  
Michael O. Killian ◽  
Leopoldo J. Cabassa ◽  
Madhukar H. Trivedi

Abstract Background We report the primary outcomes from a randomized clinical trial testing a novel culturally-adapted patient education intervention to increase engagement of Hispanic patients in depression treatment. The Depression Education Fotonovela (DEF), Secret Feelings, incorporates popular images, cultural norms, and vivid pictures embedded within a soap opera narrative to increase depression knowledge and dispel myths about treatment. We then assessed engagement in a integrated care treatment model in response to the education intervention and subsequent changes in depression symptoms in a large community-based clinic whose patient population is majority Hispanic. Method The sample included 150 adult Hispanic patients with a confirmed diagnosis of depression who were randomly assigned to either: [1] integrated care + fotonovela; or [2] integrated care + standard education. Differences between treatment groups were examined as were changes in depression, anxiety, depression knowledge, and stigma scores over time and engagement in treatment. Results Results indicated that while depression scores significantly decreased over time for participants (F [2.811, 416.054] = 197.69, p < .001, η2 = .572), no differences between the two education groups were found (F [1, 148] = 0.70, p = .403, η2 = .005). At 12-month follow-up, 101 patients (80.8%) reported a 50% of greater reduction in depression scores from baseline. Conclusions We found little difference between the two education groups, suggesting that either may helpful for engaging Hispanic patients into care. Better tailoring of patient education, with the fotonovela or similarly adapted tools, will require more directly addressing the stigma associated with antidepressant medication. Trial registration The study was registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02702596, on 03/20/2016. Retrospectively registered.

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