50th anniversary
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2022 ◽  

Estuarine and coastal waters are acknowledged centres for anthropogenic impacts. Superimposed on the complex natural interactions between land, rivers and sea are the myriad consequences of human activity – a spectrum ranging from locally polluting effluents to some of the severest consequences of global climate change. For practitioners, academics and students in the field of coastal science and policy, this book examines and exemplifies current and future challenges: from upper estuaries to open coasts and adjacent seas; from tropical to temperate latitudes; from Europe to Australia. This authoritative volume marks the 50th anniversary of the Estuarine and Coastal Sciences Association, and contains a prologue by founding member Professor Richard Barnes and a short history of the Association. Individual chapters then address coastal erosion and deposition; open shores to estuaries and deltas; marine plastics; coastal squeeze and habitat loss; tidal freshwaters – saline incursion and estuarine squeeze; restoration management using remote data collection; carbon storage; species distribution and non-natives; shorebirds; Modelling environmental change; physical processes such as sediments and modelling; sea level rise and estuarine tidal dynamics; estuaries as fish nurseries; policy versus reality in coastal conservation; developments in Estuarine, coastal and marine management.

2022 ◽  
pp. 49-59
Patrick Lo ◽  
Robert Sutherland ◽  
Wei-En Hsu ◽  
Russ Girsberger

Brad A. Meisner

Abstract This article contains excerpts from the opening and closing remarks delivered at CAG2021 – the Annual Scientific and Educational Meeting of the Canadian Association on Gerontology (CAG) – which was hosted virtually from October 21 to 23, 2021. This event commemorated CAG’s 50th anniversary and included 645 delegates from across Canada and the world. The conference theme, “Hindsight 20/20: Looking Back for a Vision Forward in Gerontology,” focused on the burgeoning gerontological work that examines the various and complex ways that COVID-19 has affected older people and aging, as well as the need to develop a stronger emphasis on justice, equity, diversity, and inclusion in the field of gerontology.

2022 ◽  
Vol 79 (1) ◽  
pp. 1
Michael L. Callaham ◽  
Truman J. Milling

Genes ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 101
Julie Heng ◽  
Henry H. Heng

The year 2021 marks the 50th anniversary of the National Cancer Act, signed by President Nixon, which declared a national “war on cancer.” Powered by enormous financial support, this past half-century has witnessed remarkable progress in understanding the individual molecular mechanisms of cancer, primarily through the characterization of cancer genes and the phenotypes associated with their pathways. Despite millions of publications and the overwhelming volume data generated from the Cancer Genome Project, clinical benefits are still lacking. In fact, the massive, diverse data also unexpectedly challenge the current somatic gene mutation theory of cancer, as well as the initial rationales behind sequencing so many cancer samples. Therefore, what should we do next? Should we continue to sequence more samples and push for further molecular characterizations, or should we take a moment to pause and think about the biological meaning of the data we have, integrating new ideas in cancer biology? On this special anniversary, we implore that it is time for the latter. We review the Genome Architecture Theory, an alternative conceptual framework that departs from gene-based theories. Specifically, we discuss the relationship between genes, genomes, and information-based platforms for future cancer research. This discussion will reinforce some newly proposed concepts that are essential for advancing cancer research, including two-phased cancer evolution (which reconciles evolutionary contributions from karyotypes and genes), stress-induced genome chaos (which creates new system information essential for macroevolution), the evolutionary mechanism of cancer (which unifies diverse molecular mechanisms to create new karyotype coding during evolution), and cellular adaptation and cancer emergence (which explains why cancer exists in the first place). We hope that these ideas will usher in new genomic and evolutionary conceptual frameworks and strategies for the next 50 years of cancer research.

Tünde Kovács ◽  
Edit Mikó ◽  
Gyula Ujlaki ◽  
Heba Yousef ◽  
Viktória Csontos ◽  

AbstractBreast cancer, the most frequent cancer in women, is characterized by pathological changes to the microbiome of breast tissue, the tumor, the gut, and the urinary tract. Changes to the microbiome are determined by the stage, grade, origin (NST/lobular), and receptor status of the tumor. This year is the 50th anniversary of when Hill and colleagues first showed that changes to the gut microbiome can support breast cancer growth, namely that the oncobiome can reactivate excreted estrogens. The currently available human and murine data suggest that oncobiosis is not a cause of breast cancer, but can support its growth. Furthermore, preexisting dysbiosis and the predisposition to cancer are transplantable. The breast’s and breast cancer’s inherent microbiome and the gut microbiome promote breast cancer growth by reactivating estrogens, rearranging cancer cell metabolism, bringing about a more inflammatory microenvironment, and reducing the number of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. Furthermore, the gut microbiome can produce cytostatic metabolites, the production of which decreases or blunts breast cancer. The role of oncobiosis in the urinary tract is largely uncharted. Oncobiosis in breast cancer supports invasion, metastasis, and recurrence by supporting cellular movement, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, cancer stem cell function, and diapedesis. Finally, the oncobiome can modify the pharmacokinetics of chemotherapeutic drugs. The microbiome provides novel leverage on breast cancer that should be exploited for better management of the disease.

Tadeusz Budrewicz

The article presents the events of the celebration of Chopin’s 100th birthday in 1910. The article is based on the accounts published in the daily press of the time. The growth of Chopin’s cult in Polish lands culturally connected the nation divided both politically and administratively between three countries (Austria, Prussia and Russia). Despite disruptions by the police that inhibited the organisation of the celebrations in Poznan and Warsaw, the Polish people treated them as a nation-wide occasion and used that time to integrate. The key events were the 50th anniversary of Chopin’s death (1899) and the 100th anniversary of his birthday (1910). The year 1910 was also the 500th anniversary of the Battle of Grunwald which saw the Poles defeat the Germans. Chopin’s year had immense patriotic meaning and integrated the nation living under foreign rule.

2021 ◽  
Vol 49 (3) ◽  
pp. 122-132
T. M. Podymova

The work is devoted to a brief description of the preparation and conduct series of scientific experiments in the underwater laboratory “Chernomor” during the period of 1967–1972. The experiments were carried out at the depths from 8 to 30 meters. The place of the experiments is the Southern Branch of the Institute of Oceanology (Gelendzhik). It was unique experiments in the duration of a person’s stay underwater. The maximum depth for “Chernomor” was identified, the optimal methods of organizing work in underwater inhabited houses and the permissible depths for the use of nitrogen-oxygen breathing mixtures were determined. Specialized medical and physiological research was carried out to develop a methodology for the selection and training of aquanauts for future scientific crews. “Chernomor” was the only underwater house in the world that served on the seabed for five seasons in a row. More than 50 scientists from all over the country worked in it in different crews. The work is a tribute to the memory of all enthusiasts and dreamers: designers and developers, engineers and technicians, divers and scientists, everyone involved in those unforgettable events.

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