Cancer Research
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2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Marjory Charlot ◽  
Kelsi Carolan ◽  
Cyrena Gawuga ◽  
Elmer Freeman ◽  
Linda Sprague Martinez

Abstract Background Participating in clinical trials is a metric of high-quality cancer care and improves survival. However, Black individuals with cancer are less likely to be enrolled in clinical trials and experience a disproportionate burden of cancer mortality compared to Whites. Patient-engaged research is one potential strategy to address racial inequities in clinical trials, but little is known about best practices for engaging Black individuals and communities impacted by cancer in research partnerships. Methods We used a community engaged research approach to establish a patient advisory council (PAC) representative of the patient population served by a safety net hospital cancer center. We outline the process of establishing the PAC and the lessons learned. Results The inaugural PAC included 7 members representative of the cancer center’s patient demographics. PAC members developed a patient centered vision, mission and action plan. PAC and community-academic research partners experienced the transformative power of centering the lived experiences of patients of color to promote health equity in cancer research. Conclusion Establishing a patient advisory council at a safety net hospital cancer care center provided a platform for engaging a hardly reached population in patient centered research.


2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
pp. 92
Author(s):  
Kirill Zagorodnev ◽  
Alexandr Romanko ◽  
Anna P. Sokolenko ◽  
Ilya Bizin ◽  
Ekaterina S. Kuligina

Breast cancer is the most common type of malignant neoplasm in women. <em>BRCA1</em><em> </em>and<em> <em>BRCA2</em></em> are the most commonly mutated genes, but only up to 30% of hereditary breast cancer cases are attributed to alterations in these genes. A large proportion of genetic causes of hereditary breast cancer remains unknown. Thus, the search for new hereditary mutations and establishing a genetic alteration in each case of hereditary breast cancer is a clinically significant task; be the goal of our research. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) allows for simultaneous analysis of hundreds to thousands of genes at one time. We analyzed the genetic material of 49 patients of the northwest Russian population with clinical signs of hereditary breast cancer and identified new mutations associated with hereditary breast cancer. Research results show two missense mutations - SLIT3 p.Arg154Cys, CREB3 p.Lys157Glu, and truncating mutation - USP39 c.*208G&gt;C. Research conclusion; The identified mutations can explain only a tiny fraction of hereditary breast cancer cases (0.7% to 1.1%). The next step to increase the practical value of the detected alterations should be the analysis of biological characteristics of tumors in carriers of these mutations that can potentially become a target for chemotherapy.


Author(s):  
Anindita Ghosh ◽  
Chinmay Kumar Panda

: Bladder cancer carries a poor prognosis and has proven resistance to chemotherapy. Pentacyclic Triterpenoid Acids (PTAs) are natural bioactive compounds that have a well-known impact on cancer research because of their cytotoxic and chemopreventive activities. This review focuses on bladder cancer which can no longer be successfully treated by DNA damaging drugs. Unlike most of the existing drugs against bladder cancer, PTAs are non-toxic to normal cells. Collecting findings from both in vitro and in vivo studies, it has been concluded that PTAs may serve as promising agents in future bladder cancer therapy. In this review, the roles of various PTAs in bladder cancer have been explored, and their mechanisms of action in the treatment of bladder cancer have been described. Specific PTAs have been shortlisted from each of the chief skeletons of pentacyclic triterpenoids, which could be effective against bladder cancer because of their mode of action. This review thereby throws light on the multi targets and mechanisms of PTAs, which are responsible for their selective anticancer effects and provides guidelines for further research and development of new natural antitumor compounds.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Author(s):  
Zhengyan Liang ◽  
Muhammad Babar Khawar ◽  
Jingyan Liang ◽  
Haibo Sun

Ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance, and gamma scintigraphy-based detection and bio-imaging technologies have achieved outstanding breakthroughs in recent years. However, these technologies still encounter several limitations such as insufficient sensitivity, specificity and security that limit their applications in cancer detection and bio-imaging. The semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are a kind of newly developed fluorescent nanoparticles that have superior fluorescence intensity, strong resistance to photo-bleaching, size-tunable light emission and could produce multiple fluorescent colors under single-source excitation. Furthermore, QDs have optimal surface to link with multiple targets such as antibodies, peptides, and several other small molecules. Thus, QDs might serve as potential, more sensitive and specific methods of detection than conventional methods applied in cancer molecular targeting and bio-imaging. However, many challenges such as cytotoxicity and nonspecific uptake still exist limiting their wider applications. In the present review, we aim to summarize the current applications and challenges of QDs in cancer research mainly focusing on tumor detection, bio-imaging, and provides opinions on how to address these challenges.


Medicina ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 57 (11) ◽  
pp. 1141
Author(s):  
Fabian Garrido ◽  
Carl Mathis Wild ◽  
Johanna Mittelberger ◽  
Franziska Dobler ◽  
Mariella Schneider ◽  
...  

Both clinical-pathological and experimental studies have shown that chemokines play a key role in activating the immune checkpoint modulator in cervical cancer progression and are associated with prognosis in tumor cell proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, chemoresistance, and immunosuppression. Therefore, a clear understanding of chemokines and immune checkpoint modulators is essential for the treatment of this disease. This review discusses the origins and categories of chemokines and the mechanisms that are responsible for activating immune checkpoints in cervical dysplasia and cancer, chemokines as biomarkers, and therapy development that targets immune checkpoints in cervical cancer research.


Gene ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 806 ◽  
pp. 145922
Author(s):  
Siqi Cai ◽  
Dan Yao ◽  
Yuqi Zhang ◽  
Zhaohe Li ◽  
Xiaoyu Li ◽  
...  

Author(s):  
Donna R. Rivera ◽  
Henry J. Henk ◽  
Elizabeth Garrett‐Mayer ◽  
Jennifer B. Christian ◽  
Andrew J. Belli ◽  
...  

Author(s):  
Domina Petric

Aim of this article is to review the literature about known human carcinogens and emphasize the importance of toxicology in cancer research. Cancer etiology is multifactorial with toxins playing an important role, what accentuates the importance of multidisciplinary approach to cancer research, with toxicology playing a key role.


2021 ◽  
pp. 458-500
Author(s):  
Elena Locci ◽  
Silvia Raymond

New research shows that blood and urine tests can lead to faster and less invasive methods for diagnosing and monitoring different types of tumors. Two studies by the California South University (CSU) Cancer Research Institute (CRI) describe the potential of fluid biopsy to identify and track tumor growth in two very different cancers: bladder cancer and peripheral nerve tumors. Despite the differences between these cancers and their related biopsies, studies show the potential benefits of this relatively new tool in the fight against cancer. Keywords: Cancer; Cells; Tissues; Tumors; Prevention; Prognosis; Diagnosis; Imaging; Screening; Treatment; Management


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