This study aims to determine the level of knowledge in searching, evaluating, information management competency and to find differences among research scholars’ in terms of their information literacy (IL) competency with regards to gender and academic designation.
A survey method was conducted to collect the data from the research scholars’ pursuing their doctoral degrees in Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Tamil Nadu, India.
The results of this study revealed that the majority have used simple search and were not using the Online Public Access Catalogue. They were not able to assess the information retrieved and the assistance from the library staff to locate the resources was found to be minimal. This study also highlighted some of the problems faced by the research scholars and provided some suggestions based on the findings. This study highlights the need to adopt a new IL framework and conduct user literacy training programmes for effective use of the resources.
This study also has practical implications in terms of assessing the IL competency among the research scholars and significant variations which identified through demographics and assessment of IL competency will enable policymakers to develop a framework for brand new literacy instructions. The results may help to frame long-term strategies to motivate and train the research scholars in the effective use of technologies for improving their academic performance.
This study used a questionnaire as tool to collect the data. The outcome of the results will help the librarians and authorities to discuss research scholars’ IL competency and take appropriate decisions to improve their IL skills.
AbstractThe appetite for effective use of information assets has been steadily rising in both public and private sector organisations. However, whether the information is used for social good or commercial gain, there is a growing recognition of the complex socio-technical challenges associated with balancing the diverse demands of regulatory compliance and data privacy, social expectations and ethical use, business process agility and value creation, and scarcity of data science talent. In this vision paper, we present a series of case studies that highlight these interconnected challenges, across a range of application areas. We use the insights from the case studies to introduce Information Resilience, as a scaffold within which the competing requirements of responsible and agile approaches to information use can be positioned. The aim of this paper is to develop and present a manifesto for Information Resilience that can serve as a reference for future research and development in relevant areas of responsible data management.
Research relevance: students’ effective activity, all tasks performed by them, and the requirements imposed should be under constant and qualified guidance, in this regard, the problem of managing the educational and cognitive activity of students of pre-conscription physical training is relevant. Research objectives: to highlight the leading requirements for the management of student activities. Research materials and methods: scientific and pedagogical theory of objective world reflection, the steady deepening of information about educational and cognitive material (ECM), more effective use of a variety of forms of knowledge transfer, skillful use of an increasing number of special methodological techniques, deepening interaction of the used information sources. Research results: requirements for the management of students’ activities were formulated to achieve regulated interaction of informational and motor aspects of physical control; ensure the correspondence of the transmitted information to the specifics of the proposed exercise; rely on the leading factors of the unity of the informational and motor sides of the exercise; use a directed combination of informational and motor aspects of the exercise. Conclusions: knowledge is a necessary prerequisite for a more meaningful mastering of motor skills and abilities, effective use of existing physical abilities in military-sports and other activities.
Recordings of bat echolocation and social calls are used for many research purposes from ecological studies to taxonomy. Effective use of these relies on identification of species from the recordings, but comparative recordings or detailed call descriptions to support identification are often lacking for areas with high biodiversity. The ChiroVox website (www.chirovox.org) was created to facilitate the sharing of bat sound recordings together with their metadata, including biodiversity data and recording circumstances. To date, more than 30 researchers have contributed over 3,900 recordings of nearly 200 species, making ChiroVox the largest open-access bat call library currently available. Each recording has a unique identifier that can be cited in publications; hence the acoustic analyses are repeatable. Most of the recordings available through the website are from bats whose species identities are confirmed, so they can be used to determine species in recordings where the bats were not captured or could not be identified. We hope that with the help of the bat researcher community, the website will grow rapidly and will serve as a solid source for bat acoustic research and monitoring.
The results of experiments to determine the role of structural schemes for the ignition of a mechanically activated thermite mixture Al–CuO and the formation of its combustion flame are presented. The reaction initiated in the bulk of the experimental assembly transforms into torch combustion in an open space. The dynamics of the volume of the flame reaction region was determined. The stage of flame formation has a stochastic character, determined by the random distribution of the reaction centres in the initial volume of the components. A high-speed camera, a pyrometer and electro contact sensors were used as diagnostic tools. The ultimate goal of the study was to optimize the conditions for the flame formation of this mixture for its effective use with a single ignition of various gas emissions.
Preventing pathogenic viral and bacterial transmission in the human environment is critical, especially in potential outbreaks that may be caused by the release of ancient bacteria currently trapped in the permafrost. Existing commercial disinfectants present issues such as a high carbon footprint. This study proposes a sustainable alternative, a bioliquid derived from biomass prepared by hydrothermal liquefaction. Results indicate a high inactivation rate of pathogenic virus and bacteria by the as-prepared bioliquid, such as up to 99.99% for H1N1, H5N1, H7N9 influenza A virus, and Bacillus subtilis var. niger spores and 99.49% for Bacillus anthracis. Inactivation of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus epidermidis confirmed that low-molecular-weight and low-polarity compounds in bioliquid are potential antibacterial components. High temperatures promoted the production of antibacterial substances via depolymerization and dehydration reactions. Moreover, bioliquid was innoxious as confirmed by the rabbit skin test, and the cost per kilogram of the bioliquid was $0.04427, which is notably lower than that of commercial disinfectants. This study demonstrates the potential of biomass to support our biosafety with greater environmental sustainability.
Under dryland conditions, annual and perennial food crops are exposed to dry spells, severely affecting crop productivity by limiting available soil moisture at critical and sensitive growth stages. Climate variability continues to be the primary cause of uncertainty, often making timing rather than quantity of precipitation the foremost concern. Therefore, mitigation and management of stress experienced by plants due to limited soil moisture are crucial for sustaining crop productivity under current and future harsher environments. Hence, the information generated so far through multiple investigations on mechanisms inducing drought tolerance in plants needs to be translated into tools and techniques for stress management. Scope to accomplish this exists in the inherent capacity of plants to manage stress at the cellular level through various mechanisms. One of the most extensively studied but not conclusive physiological phenomena is the balance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and scavenging them through an antioxidative system (AOS), which determines a wide range of damage to the cell, organ, and the plant. In this context, this review aims to examine the possible roles of the ROS-AOS balance in enhancing the effective use of water (EUW) by crops under water-limited dryland conditions. We refer to EUW as biomass produced by plants with available water under soil moisture stress rather than per unit of water (WUE). We hypothesize that EUW can be enhanced by an appropriate balance between water-saving and growth promotion at the whole-plant level during stress and post-stress recovery periods. The ROS-AOS interactions play a crucial role in water-saving mechanisms and biomass accumulation, resulting from growth processes that include cell division, cell expansion, photosynthesis, and translocation of assimilates. Hence, appropriate strategies for manipulating these processes through genetic improvement and/or application of exogenous compounds can provide practical solutions for improving EUW through the optimized ROS-AOS balance under water-limited dryland conditions. This review deals with the role of ROS-AOS in two major EUW determining processes, namely water use and plant growth. It describes implications of the ROS level or content, ROS-producing, and ROS-scavenging enzymes based on plant water status, which ultimately affects photosynthetic efficiency and growth of plants.
Clinical quality registries (CQRs) can likely improve quality in healthcare and research. However, studies indicate that effective use of CQRs is hindered by lack of engagement and interest among stakeholders, as well as factors related to organisational context, registry design and data quality. To fulfil the potential of CQRs, more knowledge on stakeholders’ perceptions of the factors that will facilitate or hamper the development of CQRs is essential to the more appropriate targeting of registry implementation and the subsequent use of the data. The primary aim of this study was to examine factors that can potentially affect the development of a national CQR for interventional radiology in Norway from the perspective of stakeholders. Furthermore, we wanted to identify the intervention functions likely to enable CQR development. Only one such registry, located in Sweden, has been established. To provide a broader context for the Norwegian study, we also sought to investigate experiences with the development of this registry.
A qualitative study of ten Norwegian radiologists and radiographers using focus groups was conducted, and an in-depth interview with the initiator of the Swedish registry was carried out. Questions were based on the Capability, Opportunity and Motivation for Behaviour Model and the Theoretical Domains Framework. The participants’ responses were categorised into predefined themes using a deductive process of thematic analysis.
Knowledge of the rationale used in establishing a CQR, beliefs about the beneficial consequences of a registry for quality improvement and research and an opportunity to learn from a well-developed registry were perceived by the participants as factors facilitating CQR development. The study further identified a range of development barriers related to environmental and resource factors (e.g., a lack of organisational support, time) and individuallevel factors (e.g., role boundaries, resistance to change), as well as several intervention functions likely to be appropriate in targeting these barriers.
This study provides a deeper understanding of factors that may be involved in the behaviour of stakeholders regarding the development of a CQR. The findings may assist in designing, implementing and evaluating a methodologically rigorous CQR intervention.
AbstractResistance to amikacin in Gram-negatives is usually mediated by the 6'-N-acetyltransferase type Ib [AAC(6')-Ib], which catalyzes the transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl CoA to the 6' position of the antibiotic molecule. A path to continue the effective use of amikacin against resistant infections is to combine it with inhibitors of the inactivating reaction. We have recently observed that addition of Zn2+ to in-vitro enzymatic reactions, obliterates acetylation of the acceptor antibiotic. Furthermore, when added to amikacin-containing culture medium in complex to ionophores such as pyrithione (ZnPT), it prevents the growth of resistant strains. An undesired property of ZnPT is its poor water-solubility, a problem that currently affects a large percentage of newly designed drugs. Water-solubility helps drugs to dissolve in body fluids and be transported to the target location. We tested a pyrithione derivative described previously (Magda et al. Cancer Res 68:5318–5325, 2008) that contains the amphoteric group di(ethyleneglycol)-methyl ether at position 5 (compound 5002), a modification that enhances the solubility. Compound 5002 in complex with zinc (Zn5002) was tested to assess growth inhibition of amikacin-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii and Klebsiella pneumoniae strains in the presence of the antibiotic. Zn5002 complexes in combination with amikacin at different concentrations completely inhibited growth of the tested strains. However, the concentrations needed to achieve growth inhibition were higher than those required to achieve the same results using ZnPT. Time-kill assays showed that the effect of the combination amikacin/Zn5002 was bactericidal. These results indicate that derivatives of pyrithione with enhanced water-solubility, a property that would make them drugs with better bioavailability and absorption, are a viable option for designing inhibitors of the resistance to amikacin mediated by AAC(6')-Ib, an enzyme commonly found in the clinics.