International Breastfeeding Journal
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584
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Published By Springer (Biomed Central Ltd.)

1746-4358, 1746-4358

2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Samantha Griffin ◽  
Jo Watt ◽  
Sophie Wedekind ◽  
Solange Bramer ◽  
Yasmin Hazemi-Jebelli ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Although breastfeeding is widely acknowledged as protecting both infant and maternal health postnatally, a partial or complete shortfall of maternal milk can occur for a range of reasons. In this eventuality, the currently available options for feeding infants are screened donor human milk (DHM), infant formula or unscreened shared human milk. In the UK, DHM has only been widely available in specific clinical contexts for the last 40 years, mainly to reduce the risk of necrotising enterocolitis in extremely preterm infants alongside optimal support for maternal lactation and breastfeeding. The Hearts Milk Bank (HMB) was established in 2017 as an independent, non-profit human milk bank that aimed to ensure equitable, assured access to screened DHM for neonatal units. As a result of the generosity of mothers, a surplus of DHM rapidly became available and together with lactation support, has since been provided to families with a healthcare referral. This programme has now been formalised for families facing lactational challenges, and DHM stocks are permanently maintained to meet their needs. Case series This case series describes the clinical paths of four families who accessed lactation support and DHM from the HMB, along with a description of the process for community provision. To date, the HMB has supported over 300 families. Working collaboratively with key stakeholders, the HMB team has developed a prioritisation strategy based on utilitarian ethical models, protocols that ensure safe handling and appropriateness of use, broader donor recruitment parameters that maintain safety with a pragmatic approach for full term healthy infants, and a process to ensure parents or carers have access to the knowledge needed to give informed consent and use DHM appropriately. Conclusions Stakeholders, including parents, healthcare professionals, and milk banks, will need to discuss priorities for both DHM use and research gaps that can underpin the equitable expansion of services, in partnership with National Health Service (NHS) teams and third-sector organisations that support breastfeeding and maternal mental health.


2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Kameela Miriam Alibhai ◽  
Malia S. Q. Murphy ◽  
Sandra Dunn ◽  
Erin Keely ◽  
Paloma O’Meara ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Breastmilk hand expression (BMHE) is recommended to promote lactation, relieve breast engorgement, and collect milk for future infant feedings. Resources to teach this skill are limited and infrequently developed in partnership with the obstetrical population. In collaboration with maternity care experts and individuals with recent breastfeeding experience, we designed a one-page toolkit that describes the process of BMHE and includes step-by-step instructions and images to illustrate the technique. This study aimed to evaluate the readability, clarity of content, layout, and informational value of this BMHE toolkit. Methods Individuals who intended to breastfeed, were currently breastfeeding, or had recently breastfed were electronically surveyed and completed a two-part survey that consisted of radio, multi-select, Likert scale, and open-ended questions. Part one captured sociodemographic factors, obstetrical history, and breastfeeding practices. Part two collected feedback on the BMHE toolkit. Participants were recruited electronically through social media and posters were circulated in antenatal and postnatal care settings in Ottawa, Canada between November 2020 and February 2021. Results Of the 123 participants, 117 (95.1%) had heard of hand expression prior to reviewing the toolkit and 99 (80.5%) had hand expressed before. Among the 48 participants who were no longer exclusively breastfeeding at the time of the survey, 22 (45.8%) had exclusively breastfed their infant for at least six months and 7 (14.6%) had discontinued exclusive breastfeeding within the first month. When asked about the BMHE toolkit, 118 (95.9%) participants said it was informative, 115 (93.5%) said it was easy to understand, and 114 (92.7%) said it was well laid-out. When asked about information seeking behaviours, participants indicated a preference for online resources (58.5%) and video resources (22.0%). Conclusions The BMHE toolkit was well received by participants and the feedback was favourable overall. The survey feedback will be used to create a revised version of the toolkit that has been validated by the obstetrical patient population. Future research should focus on identifying implementation strategies to optimize the use of the toolkit and increase its effectiveness as an educational resource to teach participants correctly BMHE.


2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Dingding Dong ◽  
Xifang Ru ◽  
Xiaofang Huang ◽  
Tian Sang ◽  
Shan Li ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Mothers of preterm infants face many challenges in breastfeeding, especially regarding lactation. This study aimed to investigate the lactation status and challenges in breastfeeding faced by preterm infants’ mothers. Methods We approached 124 mothers who gave birth to preterm infants between 26 May and 31 October 2018 in a tertiary hospital in China. Lactation status and challenges in breastfeeding on day 7 postpartum, at discharge of infants, 2 weeks post-discharge, and 3 months of corrected age were collected using questionnaires. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for expressed milk volume on day 7 postpartum for predicting expressed milk volume ≥ 300 mL/d at discharge was calculated. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with delayed lactogenesis II onset and continuation of breastfeeding at 3 months of corrected age. Results Seventy mothers were enrolled, and 51.4% had delayed lactogenesis II. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that older maternal age (aOR = 1.19; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.40) and first live birth (aOR = 4.81; 95% CI 1.43, 16.18) were significant independent predictors of delayed lactogenesis II. Mothers with delayed lactogenesis II had significantly lower expressed milk volume (day 7 postpartum: 160.0 mL vs. 300.0 mL, U = 328.50, p = 0.001; at discharge: 425.0 mL vs. 612.5 mL, U = 372.00, p = 0.005), with a lower proportion of exclusive breastfeeding in their infants (at discharge: 33.3% vs. 69.8%, χ2 = 12.39, df = 1, p < 0.001; 3 months of corrected age: 17.8% vs. 52.8%, χ2 = 11.03, df = 1, p = 0.001). The ROC showed that expressed milk volume > 190 mL/d on day 7 postpartum significantly predicted expressed milk volume ≥ 300 mL/d at discharge. Insufficient human milk was the main reason for breastfeeding discontinuation at 3 months of corrected age. Twins were less likely to continue breastfeeding at 3 months of corrected age (aOR = 0.27; 95% CI 0.09, 0.86). In singleton infants, mother’s own milk ≥50% of total milk uptake at 2 weeks post-discharge (aOR = 32.66; 95% CI 3.00, 355.25) was an independent predictor of continuous breastfeeding at 3 months of corrected age. Feeding complications in infants, poor breastfeeding technique, and low milk output are the main challenges in breastfeeding. Conclusion Interventions to improve early postpartum lactation and breastfeeding techniques may increase breastfeeding adoption in mothers of preterm infants.


2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Haixia Tu ◽  
Ping Li ◽  
Lianlian Zhu ◽  
Xiaozhen Quan ◽  
Shuli Fan ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Donor human milk is the best alternative for preterm infants when their mother’s own milk is insufficient or unavailable. The development of human milk banks in China started late, and in most of these banks, the amount of donor human milk is insufficient for clinical demand. Moreover, many mothers are reluctant to use donor human milk due to safety concerns. It is important to understand the potential supply and demand of donor human milk before establishing a new human milk bank. This study aimed to understand women’s acceptance of human milk banking in Wenzhou, southeastern China. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in three community health centers in Wenzhou, southeast China, in December 2020. Data were collected from 305 postpartum women selected through convenience sampling. Sociodemographic, perinatal and breastfeeding characteristics, awareness and knowledge of human milk banking and willingness to donate human milk, and to accept donor human milk were assessed. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to explore independent predictors of willingness to donate human milk and to accept donor human milk. Results Only 17% (52/305) of our participants had heard of human milk banking prior to this survey. The prevalence of willingness to donate human milk and use donor human milk in our study was 73.4% (224/305) and 44.6% (136/305), respectively. Employment (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.30; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17, 4.50) and human milk banking knowledge (AOR 1.23; 95% CI 1.12, 1.35) were independent predictors of willingness to donate human milk. Monthly household income in the previous year (AOR 2.18; 95% CI 1.17, 4.06), awareness of human milk banking (AOR 2.41; 95% CI 1.24, 4.67) and knowledge of human milk banking (AOR 1.22; 95% CI 1.11, 1.35) were significantly associated with willingness to accept donor human milk. Conclusions In our study, awareness of human milk banks among women in the first year postpartum was low. More mothers were willing to donate human milk than to use donor human milk to feed their children. In our study, knowledge of human milk banking was a predictor of both willingness to donate human milk and willingness to use donor human milk. Programs with detailed information on human milk banking are needed to help mothers improve their knowledge and increase acceptance of human milk banking.


2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Jimi Francis ◽  
Darby D. Dickton

Abstract Background Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a rare genetic connective tissue condition that is poorly understood in relation to lactation. As diagnostic methods improve, prevalence has increased. EDS, a disorder that impacts connective tissue, is characterized by skin extensibility, joint hypermobility, and fragile tissue which can affect every organ and body system leading to complications during pregnancy, delivery, and the postpartum period. Traits of this disease can cause mild to severe physiologic and functional obstacles during lactation. Unfortunately, there is little clinical evidence and minimal guidance for lactation management, and providers may feel uncomfortable and hesitant to address these concerns with patients due to a lack of readily available resources on the subject and inexperience with such patients. This narrative review describes and discusses the types of EDS, identifying symptoms, considerations, and precautions for care providers to implement during lactation and breastfeeding. Methods An electronic search of relevant citations was conducted using the databases Cochrane, PubMed, and Google Scholar from 1 January 2000 to 1 November 2021. Search terms used were Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Hypermobility Syndrome, breastfeeding, lactation, breastmilk expression, breastmilk collection, human milk expression, human milk collection, and infant feeding. The search of these databases yielded zero results. As no research articles on EDS were directly related to lactation, this narrative review includes articles found that related to the health of mothers relevant to maternal function during lactation. Discussion For the healthcare provider, identifying characteristics of EDS can improve the management of lactation challenges. Mothers may experience generalized symptoms from gastrointestinal distress to fatigue or chronic pain, while they also may suffer from more specific joint complaints and injuries, such as dislocations / subluxations, or skin fragility. Such obstacles can generate impediments to breastfeeding and create unique challenges for breastfeeding mothers with EDS. Unfortunately, new mothers with these symptoms may have them overlooked or not addressed, impacting a mother’s ability to meet her breastfeeding intentions. While there are some published research manuscripts on EDS and pregnancy, there is a lack of information regarding breastfeeding and lactation. Additional research is needed to help guide EDS mothers to achieve their breastfeeding intentions.


2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Amanda J. Wagg ◽  
Alexander Hassett ◽  
Margie M. Callanan

Abstract Background Milk sharing is not a new concept and occurs today via regulated human milk banks and unregulated online milk sharing groups. Exploring and understanding how, and why, mothers use these peers to peer milk sharing groups, is a vehicle to understanding how breastfeeding mothers can be tangibly supported online, adding to the literature on peer milk sharing, from a recipient’s perspective. This research presents a single case example of an online breastfeeding support group use, through one mother’s experiencing of seeking human donor milk. Method This is a qualitative, exploratory study observing the attitudes, thoughts, and feelings of one mother who is seeking human donor milk through online groups. A single key case was identified, and the participant was asked to document thoughts and feelings as she searched for milk online. A telephone interview was conducted after two months, and the online page activity from the Human Milk for Human Babies Facebook group was captured for the week following the interview. The results were presented in a chronological and linear analytical approach adopting pattern matching. Results ‘Abbi’ is a mother who has Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and subsequent low milk supply and sought donor breastmilk online. Online support groups introduced her to donor milk sharing, which not only supported her breastfeeding but supported her own mental health. Abbi talks of the need to build a trusting relationship with her donor, due to the lack of regulation, and the positive impact it had for her and ‘Lucas’, her baby. Conclusion Considering milk sharing groups simply as tangible online support ignores the complexities around Abbi’s decision to use human donor milk. Peer milk sharing online is an option for mothers, but it is surrounded by stigma amongst other mothers, professionals, and even within pro breastfeeding support groups.


2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Takeshi Chiba ◽  
Aya Kooka ◽  
Kiyoko Kowatari ◽  
Megumi Yoshizawa ◽  
Naoko Chiba ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Milk-derived microRNAs (miRNAs), including hsa-miR-148a-3p (miR-148a) and hsa-miR-125b-5p (miR-125b), have been shown to be beneficial to the gastrointestinal function in infants. Here, we investigated their expression during lactation in humans and determined whether the infant formulae available in Japan contain these miRNAs. Methods Healthy Japanese women (n = 16) who gave birth vaginally or by cesarean section at the Teine Keijinkai Hospital between 1 September 2020, and 31 April 2021 were included in this study. Breast milk was collected by nurses on days 4 or 5 after delivery (hereinafter, transition milk) and on day 30 of postpartum (hereinafter, mature milk). The levels of miR-148a and miR-125b in breastmilk and six commercially available infant formulae were compared and evaluated using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Results In all participants, the miR-148a level in mature breastmilk was significantly lower than that in the transition milk. The changes in miR-125b expression during lactation showed similar trends to the changes in miR-148a expression. The miR-148a and miR-125b levels in all analyzed infant formulae were lower than 1/500th and 1/100th of those in mature breastmilk, respectively. Conclusions The levels of both miR-148a and miR-125b in human breast milk decreased on day 30 postpartum compared with those in the transition milk. Additionally, the expression of these miRNAs in infant formulae available in Japan was very low. Further studies with larger populations are required to understand precisely the lactational changes in the expression of miR148a and miR-125b in breast milk.


2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Michael Ekholuenetale ◽  
Amadou Barrow ◽  
Amit Arora

Abstract Background The effects of breastfeeding practices on children’s health are undoubtedly of great interest. However, inequalities in breastfeeding practices and mother and newborn skin-to-skin contact (SSC) exist in many resource-constrained settings. This study examined the regional prevalence and socioeconomic inequalities in exclusive breastfeeding (EBF), early initiation of breastfeeding and SSC in Nigeria. Methods Data on 2936 infants under six months were extracted from the 2018 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) to determine EBF. In addition, data on 21,569 children were analysed for early initiation of breastfeeding and SSC. Concentration index and curves were used to measure socioeconomic inequalities in EBF, early initiation of breastfeeding and SSC. Results The prevalence of EBF, early initiation of breastfeeding and SSC were 31.8, 44.2 and 12.1% respectively. Furthermore, Ogun state had the highest prevalence of EBF (71.4%); while Bayelsa state had the highest prevalence of SSC (67.8%) and early initiation of breastfeeding (96.2%) respectively. Urban dwellers had higher prevalence of EBF, SSC and early initiation of breastfeeding across household wealth quintile and by levels of mothers’ education in contrast to their rural counterparts. We quantified inequalities in early initiation of breastfeeding, EBF, and SSC according to household wealth and maternal education. The study outcomes had greater coverage in higher household wealth, in contrast to the lower household wealth groups; early initiation of breastfeeding (concentration index = 0.103; p = 0.002), EBF (concentration index = 0.118; p < 0.001), and SSC (concentration index = 0.152; p < 0.001) respectively. Furthermore, early initiation of breastfeeding (concentration index = 0.091; p < 0.001), EBF (concentration index = 0.157; p < 0.001) and SSC (concentration index = 0.156; p < 0.001) had greater coverage among mothers with higher educational attainment. Conclusion Low prevalence and socioeconomic inequalities in early initiation of breastfeeding, EBF and SSC were identified. We recommend that health promotion programs targeted and co-designed with disadvantaged mothers are critical to meet global breastfeeding targets. Also, future researchers should conduct further studies especially clinical control trials and qualitative studies to unravel the possible reasons for differences in the indicators.


2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Michael Ekholuenetale ◽  
Amadou Barrow

Abstract Background Breastfeeding practices and their impact on infant health and survival are unquestionably of global interest. The aim of this study was to examine the link between breastfeeding initiation within one hour of birth, breastfeeding duration and childhood mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods This study used data from the Demographic and Health Survey, which was conducted in 35 Sub-Saharan African countries between 2008 and 2017. Early initiation and duration of breastfeeding, food consumption indices, and infant mortality were all important variables. Analysis used percentage, median/interquartile range, and regression models (logistic, linear, Cox). Results Early initiation of breastfeeding within one hour after birth was lowest in Chad (23.0%) and highest in Burundi (85.0%). The pooled median duration of breastfeeding was 12 months. Female children had 3% significant lower odds of consuming tinned, powdered or fresh milk, compared with male children (OR 0.97; 95% CI 0.94, 0.99). Conversely, female children were more likely to be put to breast within one hour after birth, compared with male children (OR 1.03; 95% CI 1.01, 1.05). Results from the pooled sample showed approximately 20% (HR 0.80; 95% CI 0.67, 0.96) and 21% (HR 0.79; 95% CI 0.77, 0.80) reduction in infant mortality for children breastfed within one hour after birth and for every unit increase in the months of breastfeeding respectively. In addition, countries with the leading infant mortality rate include; Sierra Leone (92 deaths per 1000 live births), Chad (72 deaths per 1000 live births), Nigeria (69 deaths per 1000 live births), Cote d’ Ivoire (68 deaths per 1000 live births), Guinea (67 deaths per 1000 live births), Burkina-Faso (65 deaths per 1000 live births) and Mozambique (64 deaths per 1000 live births) respectively. Conclusions The findings from this study underscores the need for early breastfeeding initiation and prolong breastfeeding to be considered in programmes on improving childhood survival. Efforts should be made to improve optimal breastfeeding practices as only about half of children in the pooled sample had best practices of breastfeeding.


2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Heather A. Grimes ◽  
Helen L. McLachlan ◽  
Della A. Forster ◽  
Fiona McLardie-Hore ◽  
Kate Mortensen ◽  
...  

Abstract Background The RUBY randomised controlled trial demonstrated the benefit of proactive telephone peer support in promoting breastfeeding continuation in a setting with high breastfeeding initiation, where typically this is difficult to achieve. This paper describes the implementation and delivery of the peer support intervention with a focus on recruitment, training, and support of peer volunteers, and includes a description of the key components of the calls. Methods Data collection occurred between December 2012 and June 2016 in Melbourne, Australia. Volunteers completed enrolment forms at the training session and recorded data related to each call in a Call Log maintained for each mother supported. Data were summarised using descriptive statistics and responses to open-ended questions analysed using content analysis. Results A total of 693 women expressed interest in the peer support role, with 246 completing training, that is, 95% of whom supported at least one mother. Each supported a mean of two mothers (range 1 to 11). Training session topics included respecting individual values, using positive language, confidence building, active listening, empathetic support, and normal baby behaviour. There were 518 periods of support where at least one call was made between a volunteer and a mother to whom she was allocated. Of the 518 periods of support, 359 Call Logs (69%) were returned. The 359 call logs recorded a total of 2398 calls between peers and mothers. Call length median duration was 12 min (range 1 to 111 min). Volunteers perceived the most valued aspects of the calls were the provsion of ‘general emotional support’ (51%) and ‘general information/discussion about breastfeeding’ (44%). During the first call, mothers raised questions about ‘nipple pain/ damage’ (24%) and 'general breastfeeding information’ (23%). At ≥12 weeks postpartum, issues raised related to ‘normal infant behaviour’ (22%), ‘feed frequency’ (16%), and ‘general breastfeeding information’ (15%). Volunteers referred women to other resources during 28% of calls, most commonly to the Australian Breastfeeding Association. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that the RUBY trial was feasible and sustainable in terms of recruiting volunteers who were willing to participate in training and who proceeded to provide peer support. Call content was responsive to the evolving breastfeeding information needs of mothers and the provision of emotional support was perceived by volunteers to be important. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN 12612001024831.


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