beta lactamase
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Bálint József Nagy ◽  
Bence Balázs ◽  
Isma Benmazouz ◽  
Péter Gyüre ◽  
László Kövér ◽  

During winter, a large number of rooks gather and defecate at the park of a university clinic. We investigated the prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)–producing Escherichia coli in these birds and compared recovered isolates with contemporary human isolates. In 2016, fecal samples were collected from 112 trap-captured rooks and investigated for presence of ESBL producers using eosin methylene blue agar supplemented by 2 mg/L cefotaxime; 2,455 contemporary human fecal samples of patients of the clinics sent for routine culturing were tested similarly. In addition, 42 ESBL-producing E. coli isolates collected during the same period from inpatients were also studied. ESBL genes were sought for by PCR and were characterized by sequencing; E. coli ST131 clones were identified. Epidemiological relatedness was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and confirmed using whole genome sequencing in selected cases. Thirty-seven (33%) of sampled rooks and 42 (1.7%) of human stools yielded ESBL-producing E coli. Dominant genes were blaCTX–M–55 and blaCTX–M–27 in corvid, blaCTX–M–15 and blaCTX–M–27 in human isolates. ST162 was common among rooks. Two rook-derived E. coli belonged to ST131 C1-M27, which was also predominant (10/42) among human fecal and (15/42) human clinical isolates. Another potential link between rooks and humans was a single ST744 rook isolate grouped with one human fecal and three clinical isolates. Despite possible contact, genotypes shared between rooks and humans were rare. Thus, rooks are important as long-distance vectors and reservoirs of ESBL-producing E. coli rather than direct sources of infections to humans in our setting.

Gábor Ternák ◽  
Károly Berényi ◽  
Balázs Németh ◽  
Ágnes Szenczi ◽  
István Kiss

Hematological malignancies are considered the fifth most common cancer in the world. Several risk factors and probable etiological agents have been suspected in the pathomechanism of those malignancies as infections, chemicals, irradiation, etc., and recently, the contribution of the altered gut flora, dysbiosis, was identified also as a possible additional factor to the existing ones. Host, and external factors, like antibiotics, which were identified as a major disruptor of the "normal" gut flora, influence the composition of the microbiome. Considering the several-fold differences in antibiotic consumption patterns and the incidence of hematological malignancies in European countries, the hypothesis was raised that the dominant consumption of certain antibiotic classes might influence the incidence of different hematological malignancies through the modification of gut flora. Comparisons were performed between the average antibiotic consumption databases reported yearly by ECDC (2009-2019) and the incidence rate of Hodkin lymphoma (HL), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), multiple myeloma (MM), and leukemia (LEU) estimated for 2020 in 30 European countries. Applying Spearman calculations, significant positive correlation has been found between the incidence of HL and tetracycline (J01A) consumption (r = 0.399, p = 0,029), NHL and narrow spectrum, beta-lactamase resistant penicillin (J01CF) (r = 0.580, p = 0,001), MM and tetracycline (r = 0.492, p = 0.006), penicillin (J01C) (r = 0.366, p = 0.047), narrow spectrum, beta-lactamase resistant penicillin (J01CF) (r = 0.574, p = 0.001), while strong, significant negative correlation has been recorded between NHL and cephalosporin (r = -0,460, p = 0,011), and quinolone (r = -0,380, p = 0,038). The incidence of LEU did not show any positive or negative association with any antibiotic classes. It is concluded that certain antibiotic classes, in addition to other putative factors, might promote or inhibit the development of different hematological malignancies.

Pisut Pongchaikul ◽  
Paninee Mongkolsuk

Antibiotic resistance, particularly beta-lactam resistance, is a major problem worldwide. Imipenemase or IMP-type metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) has become a more prominent enzyme, especially in Asia, since it was discovered in the 1990s in Japan. There are currently more than 91 variants of IMP-type enzymes. The most commonly identified variant of IMP-type enzymes is IMP-1 variant. IMP-type MBLs have been identified in more than 10 species in Enterobacterales. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most frequent carrier of IMP-type enzymes worldwide. In Asia, IMP-type MBLs have been distributed in many countries in the region. This work investigated a variety of currently available IMP-type MBLs in both global level and regional level. Out of 88 variants of IMP-type MBLs reported worldwide, only 32 variants were found to have susceptibility profiles. Most of the IMP-type MBLs were resistant to Carbapenems, especially Imipenem and Meropenem, followed by the 3rd generation cephalosporins, and interestingly, monobactams. Our results comprehensively indicated the distribution of IMP-type MBLs in Asia and raised the awareness of the situation of antimicrobial resistance in the region.

Hatem Kallel ◽  
Stephanie Houcke ◽  
Dabor Resiere ◽  
Thibault Court ◽  
Cesar Roncin ◽  

Intensive care unit–acquired infection (ICU-AI) and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase–producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) carriage are a major concern worldwide. Our objective was to investigate the impact of ESBL-PE carriage on ICU-AI. Our study is prospective, observational, and noninterventional. It was conducted over a 5-year period (Jan 2013–Dec 2017) in the medical-surgical intensive care unit of the Cayenne General Hospital (French Amazonia). During the study period, 1,340 patients were included, 271 (20.2%) developed ICU-AI, and 16.2% of these were caused by ESBL-PE. The main sites of ICU-AI were ventilator-associated pneumonia (35.8%) and primary bloodstream infection (29.8%). The main responsible microorganisms were Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-P in 35.8% of isolates), and Enterobacter cloacae (ESBL-P in 29.8% of isolates). Prior ESBL-PE carriage was diagnosed in 27.6% of patients with ICU-AI. In multivariable analysis, the sole factor associated with ESBL-PE as the responsible organism of ICU-AI was ESBL-PE carriage before ICU-AI (P < 0.001; odds ratio: 7.9 95% CI: 3.4-18.9). ESBL-PE carriers (74 patients) developed ICU-AI which was caused by ESBL-PE in 32 cases (43.2%). This proportion of patients carrying ESBL-PE who developed ICU-AI to the same microorganism was 51.2% in ESBL-P K. pneumoniae, 5.6% in ESBL-P Escherichia coli, and 40% in ESBL-P Enterobacter spp. NPV of ESBL-PE carriage to predict ICU-AI caused by ESBL-PE was above 94% and PPV was above 43%. Carriage of ESBL-P K pneumoniae and Enterobacter spp. is a strong predictor of ICU-AI caused by these two microorganisms.

2022 ◽  
Thomas Edwards ◽  
Christopher T Williams ◽  
Macrine Olwala ◽  
Pauline Andang'o ◽  
Walter Otenio ◽  

Objectives Neonatal sepsis, a major cause of death amongst infants in sub-Saharan Africa, is often gut derived. Impairments in immunity and the gut barrier in sick neonates allow colonisation by opportunistic pathogens such as Enterobacteriaceae to progress to blood stream infection. Colonisation by Enterobacteriaceae producing extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) or carbapenemase enzymes is particularly problematic and can lead to antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) or untreatable infections. We sought to explore the rates of colonisation by ESBL or carbapenemase producers and their genotypes in two neonatal units (NNUs) in West and East Africa. Methods Stool and rectal swab samples were taken at multiple timepoints from newborns admitted to the NNUs at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria and the Jaramogi Oginga Odinga Teaching and Referral Hospital, Kisumu, western Kenya. Samples were tested for ESBL and carbapenemase genes using a previously validated qPCR assay with high resolution melt analysis. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to examine colonisation rates at both sites. Results A total of 119 stool and rectal swab samples were taken from 42 infants admitted to the two NNUs. Six (14.3%) infants were extremely preterm (gestation <28 weeks), 19 (45.2%) were born by Caesarean section and 3 (8.6%) mothers were HIV positive. Median (IQR) duration of admission was 12.5 (5-26) days and 12 (28.6%) infants died. Overall, colonisation with ESBL (37 infants, 89%) was more common than with carbapenemase producers (26, 62.4%; P = 0.093). Median survival time before colonisation with ESBL organisms was 7 days and with carbapenemase producers 16 days (P=0.035). The majority of ESBL genes detected belonged to the CTX-M-1 (36/38; 95%), and CTX-M-9 (2/36; 5%) groups. The most prevalent carbapenemase was blaNDM (27/29, 93%). Single blaVIM (1/32, 3%) and blaOXA-48 genes (1/32, 3%) were also detected. Conclusions Gut colonisation of neonates by AMR organisms was common and occurred rapidly in NNUs in Kenya and Nigeria. Active surveillance of colonisation will improve the understanding of AMR in these settings and guide infection control and antibiotic prescribing practice to improve clinical outcomes.

2022 ◽  
Vol 204 (2) ◽  
Szymon Walter de Walthoffen

Abstract Purpose Neisseria gonorrhoeae is an etiological agent of gonorrhea which remains a major public health problem the mechanisms that determine resistance to drugs of the beta-lactam class, which are recommended for the treatment of gonorrhea, are currently the most important problem in its treatment. Chromosomal mutations are responsible for resistance to ceftriaxone and cefepime. The possibility of mutations in the gene encoding beta-lactamase (blaTEM) in the penicillinase plasmid may also turn out to be a serious threat. Methods The occurrence of resistance encoded on penicillinase plasmid has been investigated. For this purpose, the susceptibility of bacteria was determined and the gene for resistance to beta-lactams as well as the plasmids themselves was typed. Results Of the 333 strains tested, 21 (6.3%) had the beta-lactamase gene and produced penicillinase. Two of the beta-lactamase: TEM-1 and TEM-135 occurred among the tested strains of N. gonorrhoeae. Most of the known penicillinase plasmid types of N. gonorrhoeae were demonstrated: the Asian, the African, the Toronto/Rio plasmids and Australian variants. Conclusions In the first 3 years, TEM-1 beta-lactamases dominated in N. gonorrhoeae, which were replaced by TEM-135 in the following years of the study. Not all molecular methods are capable of varying the types of penicillinase plasmids. A particularly noteworthy observation is the fact that the Australia-type of penicillinase plasmid (3270 bp) was identified for the first time in Europe, and the second time in the world.

Antibiotics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 67
Dhriti Mallik ◽  
Diamond Jain ◽  
Sanjib Bhakta ◽  
Anindya Sundar Ghosh

The consistently mutating bacterial genotypes appear to have accelerated the global challenge with antimicrobial resistance (AMR); it is therefore timely to investigate certain less-explored fields of targeting AMR mechanisms in bacterial pathogens. One of such areas is beta-lactamase (BLA) induction that can provide us with a collection of prospective therapeutic targets. The key genes (ampD, ampE and ampG) to which the AmpC induction mechanism is linked are also involved in regulating the production of fragmented muropeptides generated during cell-wall peptidoglycan recycling. Although the involvement of these genes in inducing class C BLAs is apparent, their effect on serine beta-lactamase (serine-BLA) induction is little known. Here, by using ∆ampD and ∆ampE mutants of E. coli, we attempted to elucidate the effects of ampD and ampE on the expression of serine-BLAs originating from Enterobacteriaceae, viz., CTX-M-15, TEM-1 and OXA-2. Results show that cefotaxime is the preferred inducer for CTX-M-15 and amoxicillin for TEM-1, whereas oxacillin for OXA-2. Surprisingly, exogenous BLA expressions are elevated in ∆ampD and ∆ampE mutants but do not always alter their beta-lactam susceptibility. Moreover, the beta-lactam resistance is increased upon in trans expression of ampD, whereas the same is decreased upon ampE expression, indicating a differential effect of ampD and ampE overexpression. In a nutshell, depending on the BLA, AmpD amidase moderately facilitates a varying level of serine-BLA expression whereas AmpE transporter acts likely as a negative regulator of serine-BLA.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Paula Kurittu ◽  
Banafsheh Khakipoor ◽  
Jari Jalava ◽  
Jari Karhukorpi ◽  
Annamari Heikinheimo

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a growing concern in public health, particularly for the clinically relevant extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Studies describing ESBL-producing Escherichia coli clinical samples from Finland to the genomic level and investigation of possible zoonotic transmission routes are scarce. This study characterizes ESBL-producing E. coli from clinical samples in Finland using whole genome sequencing (WGS). Comparison is made between animal, food, and environmental sources in Finland to gain insight into potential zoonotic transmission routes and to recognize successful AMR genes, bacterial sequence types (STs), and plasmids. ESBL-producing E. coli isolates (n = 30) obtained from the Eastern Finland healthcare district between 2018 and 2020 underwent WGS and were compared to sequences from non-human and healthy human sources (n = 67) isolated in Finland between 2012 and 2018. A majority of the clinical isolates belonged to ST131 (n = 21; 70%), of which 19 represented O25:H4 and fimH30 allele, and 2 O16:H5 and fimH41 allele. Multidrug resistance was common, and the most common bla gene identified was blaCTX–M–27 (n = 14; 47%) followed by blaCTX–M–15 (n = 10; 33%). blaCTX–M–27 was identified in 13 out of 21 isolates representing ST131, with 12 isolates belonging to a recently discovered international E. coli ST131 C1-M27 subclade. Isolates were found to be genetically distinct from non-human sources with core genome multilocus sequence typing based analysis. Most isolates (n = 26; 87%) possessed multiple replicons, with IncF family plasmids appearing in 27 (90%) and IncI1 in 5 (17%) isolates. IncF[F1:A2:B20] replicon was identified in 11, and IncF[F-:A2:B20] in 4 isolates. The results indicate the ST131-C1-M27 clade gaining prevalence in Europe and provide further evidence of the concerning spread of this globally successful pathogenic clonal group. This study is the first to describe ESBL-producing E. coli in human infections with WGS in Finland and provides important information on global level of the spread of ESBL-producing E. coli belonging to the C1-M27 subclade. The results will help guide public health actions and guide future research.

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