neurocognitive outcomes
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Tone Nordvik ◽  
Eva M. Schumacher ◽  
Pål G. Larsson ◽  
Are H. Pripp ◽  
Gro C. Løhaugen ◽  

Abstract Background Evidence regarding the predictive value of early amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (aEEG)/EEG on neurodevelopmental outcomes at school age and beyond is lacking. We  aimed to investigate whether there is an association between early postnatal EEG and neurocognitive outcomes in late childhood. Methods This study is an observational prospective cohort study of premature infants with a gestational age <28 weeks. The total absolute band powers (tABP) of the delta, theta, alpha, and beta bands were analyzed from EEG recordings during the first three days of life. At 10–12 years of age, neurocognitive outcomes were assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children 4th edition (WISC-IV), Vineland adaptive behavior scales 2nd edition, and Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). The mean differences in tABP were assessed for individuals with normal versus unfavorable neurocognitive scores. Results Twenty-two infants were included. tABP values in all four frequency bands were significantly lower in infants with unfavorable results in the main composite scores (full intelligence quotient, adaptive behavior composite score, and global executive composite score) on all three tests (p < 0.05). Conclusions Early postnatal EEG has the potential to assist in predicting cognitive outcomes at 10–12 years of age in extremely premature infants <28 weeks’ gestation. Impact Evidence regarding the value of early postnatal EEG in long-term prognostication in preterm infants is limited. Our study suggests that early EEG spectral analysis correlates with neurocognitive outcomes in late childhood in extremely preterm infants. Early identification of infants at-risk of later impairment is important to initiate early and targeted follow-up and intervention.

JAMA ◽  
2021 ◽  
Michael S. Avidan ◽  
Elizabeth L. Whitlock ◽  
George A. Mashour

Christina Moore ◽  
Soojie Yu ◽  
Oscar Aljure

Background: Patients who undergo cardiac surgery are at increased risk of stroke, postoperative cognitive decline, and delirium. These neurocognitive complications have led to increased costs, intensive care unit stays, morbidity, and mortality. As a result, there is a significant push to mitigate any neurological complications in cardiac surgery patients. Near-infrared spectroscopy to measure regional cerebral oxygen saturations has gained consideration due to its non-invasive, user-friendly, and relatively inexpensive nature. Aim of Study: To provide a comprehensive summary of cerebral oximetry in cardiac surgery. The review interrogates multiple systematic reviews assessing different outcomes in cardiac surgery to assess if cerebral oximetry is effective. Further, the review analyzes all available interventions for an acute desaturation to determine the efficacy of individual interventions. Methods: A narrative review of randomized controlled trials, observational studies, and systematic reviews with metanalyses were performed through August 2021. Results: There is significant heterogeneity amongst studies regarding the definition of a clinically significant cerebral desaturation. In addition, the assessment of neurocognitive outcomes has large variability, making metanalysis challenging. To date, cerebral oximetry use during cardiac surgery has not been associated with improvements in neurocognitive outcomes, morbidity, or mortality. The evidence to support particular interventions for an acute desaturation is equivocal. Conclusions: Future research is needed to quantify a clinically significant cerebral desaturation and to determine which interventions for an acute desaturation effectively improve clinical outcomes.

2021 ◽  
Vol 40 (6) ◽  
pp. 377-385
Jacqueline Brady ◽  
Ashton Cannupp ◽  
Jordan Myers ◽  
Amy J. Jnah

Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is a disorder of thyroid hormone deficiency which develops secondary to incomplete thyroid development or inadequate thyroid hormone production. State-mandated newborn screening throughout the United States has increased the detection rate of CH, allowing for early intervention. Although the overall mortality rate of CH is low, delayed or omitted treatment can lead to devastating neurocognitive outcomes. As such, CH is regarded as the leading cause of preventable intellectual disability in children. Early identification, facilitated by astute neonatal nursing and medical care, is contingent upon an active working knowledge of the disease process and awareness of the limitations of the newborn screen.

BMJ Open ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (11) ◽  
pp. e051509
Samuel Lees ◽  
Mathew Dicker ◽  
Jie En Ku ◽  
Varun Chaganti ◽  
Matthew Mew-Sum ◽  

IntroductionDisease-modifying therapies (DMTs) are the mainstay of treatment for relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). There is established evidence that DMTs are effective at reducing relapse rate and disease progression in RRMS, but there has been less consideration to the synthesis of MRI and neurocognitive outcomes, which play an increasingly important role in treatment decisions. The aim of this systematic review and network meta-analysis is to examine the relative efficacy, acceptability and tolerability of DMTs for RRMS, using MRI and neurocognitive outcomes.Methods and analysisWe will search electronic databases, including MEDLINE, Embase and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, with no date restrictions. We will also search the websites of international regulatory bodies for pharmaceuticals and international trial registries. We will include parallel group randomised controlled trials of DMTs including interferon beta-1a intramuscular, interferon beta-1a subcutaneous, interferon beta-1b, peginterferon beta-1a, glatiramer acetate, natalizumab, ocrelizumab, alemtuzumab, dimethyl fumarate, teriflunomide, fingolimod, cladribine, ozanimod, mitoxantrone and rituximab, either head-to-head or against placebo in adults with RRMS. Primary outcomes include efficacy (MRI outcomes including new T1/hypointense lesions and T2/hyperintense lesions) and acceptability (all-cause dropouts). Secondary outcomes include gadolinium-enhancing lesions, cerebral atrophy and tolerability (dropouts due to adverse events). Neurocognitive measures across three domains including processing speed, working memory and verbal learning will be included as exploratory outcomes. Data will be analysed using a random-effects pairwise meta-analysis and a Bayesian hierarchical random effects network meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy, acceptability and tolerability of the included DMTs. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses will be conducted to assess the robustness of the findings. The review will be reported using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews incorporating Network Meta-Analyses statement.Ethics and disseminationThis protocol does not require ethics approval. Results will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed academic journal.PROSPERO registration numberCRD42021239630.

Sahaja Acharya ◽  
Yian Guo ◽  
Tushar Patni ◽  
Yimei Li ◽  
Chuang Wang ◽  

PURPOSE To characterize the association between neurocognitive outcomes (memory and processing speed) and radiation (RT) dose to the hippocampus, corpus callosum (CC), and frontal white matter (WM) in children with medulloblastoma treated on a prospective study, SJMB03. PATIENTS AND METHODS Patients age 3-21 years with medulloblastoma were treated at a single institution on a phase III study. The craniospinal RT dose was 23.4 Gy for average-risk patients and 36-39.6 Gy for high-risk patients. The boost dose was 55.8 Gy to the tumor bed. Patients underwent cognitive testing at baseline and once yearly for 5 years. Performance on tests of memory (associative memory and working memory) and processing speed (composite processing speed and perceptual speed) was analyzed. Mixed-effects models were used to estimate longitudinal trends in neurocognitive outcomes. Reliable change index and logistic regression were used to define clinically meaningful neurocognitive decline and identify variables associated with decline. RESULTS One hundred and twenty-four patients were eligible for inclusion, with a median neurocognitive follow-up of 5 years. Mean right and left hippocampal doses were significantly associated with decline in associative memory in patients without posterior fossa syndrome (all P < .05). Mean CC and frontal WM doses were significantly associated with decline in both measures of processing speed (all P < .05). Median brain substructure dose–volume histograms were shifted to the right for patients with a decline in associative memory or processing speed. The odds of decline in associative memory and composite processing speed increased by 23%-26% and by 10%-15% for every 1-Gy increase in mean hippocampal dose and mean CC or frontal WM dose, respectively. CONCLUSION Increasing RT dose to the CC or frontal WM and hippocampus is associated with worse performance on tests of processing speed and associative memory, respectively. Brain substructure–informed RT planning may mitigate neurocognitive impairment.

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