Human Milk
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2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Eva M. Moya-Gonzálvez ◽  
Antonio Rubio-del-Campo ◽  
Jesús Rodríguez-Díaz ◽  
María J. Yebra

AbstractMuch evidence suggests a role for human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) in establishing the infant microbiota in the large intestine, but the response of particular bacteria to individual HMOs is not well known. Here twelve bacterial strains belonging to the genera Bifidobacterium, Enterococcus, Limosilactobacillus, Lactobacillus, Lacticaseibacillus, Staphylococcus and Streptococcus were isolated from infant faeces and their growth was analyzed in the presence of the major HMOs, 2′-fucosyllactose (2′FL), 3-fucosyllactose (3FL), 2′,3-difucosyllactose (DFL), lacto-N-tetraose (LNT) and lacto-N-neo-tetraose (LNnT), present in human milk. Only the isolated Bifidobacterium strains demonstrated the capability to utilize these HMOs as carbon sources. Bifidobacterium infantis Y538 efficiently consumed all tested HMOs. Contrarily, Bifidobacterium dentium strains Y510 and Y521 just metabolized LNT and LNnT. Both tetra-saccharides are hydrolyzed into galactose and lacto-N-triose (LNTII) by B. dentium. Interestingly, this species consumed only the galactose moiety during growth on LNT or LNnT, and excreted the LNTII moiety. Two β-galactosidases were characterized from B. dentium Y510, Bdg42A showed the highest activity towards LNT, hydrolyzing it into galactose and LNTII, and Bdg2A towards lactose, degrading efficiently also 6′-galactopyranosyl-N-acetylglucosamine, N-acetyl-lactosamine and LNnT. The work presented here supports the hypothesis that HMOs are mainly metabolized by Bifidobacterium species in the infant gut.

Foods ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 2955
Miroslava Jandová ◽  
Pavel Měřička ◽  
Michaela Fišerová ◽  
Aleš Landfeld ◽  
Pavla Paterová ◽  

A systematic study, performed from 2017–2020 looked at the rate of positive post-pasteurization B. cereus findings, the quantity of B. cereus in pasteurized banked human milk (PBM), and the rate of B. cereus toxicogenic isolates from PBM. During the study period, 6815.71 L (30,943 tested bottles) of PBM were tested, with an average amount per year of 1703.93 L (7736 tested bottles). The PBM discard rate per year due to bacterial contamination varied between 8.7–10.0% and contamination with B. cereus was the most frequent reason. The total number of B. cereus positive tests was 2739 and the proportion of its positivity from all positive tests was between 56.7–66.6%. The prevalence of B. cereus positive tests rose significantly in the summer months. The production of enterotoxin was found in 3 of the 20 tested samples (15.0%). The B. cereus CFU-quantities in the PBM were below 10 CFU/mL in 80% of cases (16 of 20 samples tested). The quantitative data can be used in the risk assessment of cold storage of PBM at temperatures above zero and manipulation of PBM prior to its administration.

2021 ◽  
Vol 148 (Supplement 3) ◽  
pp. S21-S22
Daniel Urschel ◽  
Vivian Hernandez-Trujillo

Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (12) ◽  
pp. 4336
Katherine E. Chetta ◽  
Joseph L. Alcorn ◽  
John E. Baatz ◽  
Carol L. Wagner

Frozen storage is necessary to preserve expressed human milk for critically ill and very preterm infants. Milk pasteurization is essential for donor milk given to this special population. Due to these storage and processing conditions, subtle changes occur in milk nutrients. These changes may have clinical implications. Potentially, bioactive complexes of unknown significance could be found in human milk given to preterm infants. One such complex, a cytotoxic α-lactalbumin-oleic acid complex named “HAMLET,” (Human Alpha-Lactalbumin Made Lethal to Tumor cells) is a folding variant of alpha-lactalbumin that is bound to oleic acid. This complex, isolated from human milk casein, has specific toxicity to both carcinogenic cell lines and immature non-transformed cells. Both HAMLET and free oleic acid trigger similar apoptotic mechanisms in tissue and stimulate inflammation via the NF-κB and MAPK p38 signaling pathways. This protein-lipid complex could potentially trigger various inflammatory pathways with unknown consequences, especially in immature intestinal tissues. The very preterm population is dependent on human milk as a medicinal and broadly bioactive nutriment. Therefore, HAMLET’s possible presence and bioactive role in milk should be addressed in neonatal research. Through a pediatric lens, HAMLET’s discovery, formation and bioactive benefits will be reviewed.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Miriam Aguilar-Lopez ◽  
Christine Wetzel ◽  
Alissa MacDonald ◽  
Thao T. B. Ho ◽  
Sharon M. Donovan

Background: Preterm infants are exposed to different dietary inputs during their hospitalization in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). These include human milk (HM), with a human milk-based (HMF) or a bovine milk-based (BMF) fortifier, or formula. Milk consumption and the type of fortification will cause changes in the gut microbiota structure of preterm infants. This study aimed to characterize the gut microbiota of PT infant according to the type of feeding and the type of HM fortification and its possible association with infant's growth.Methods: Ninety-seven infants born ≤33 wks of gestation or <1,500 g were followed during the hospitalization period in the NICU after birth until discharge. Clinical and dietary information was collected, including mode of delivery, pregnancy complications, mechanical ventilation, use of antibiotics, weight, and type and amount of milk consumed. To characterize the gut microbiota composition, weekly stool samples were collected from study participants. The V3–V4 region of the 16S rRNA bacterial gene was Sequenced using Illumina MiSeq technology.Results: After birth, black maternal race, corrected gestational age (GA) and exposure to pregnancy complications, had a significant effect on gut microbial diversity and the abundance of Enterococcus, Veillonella, Bifidobacterium, Enterobacter, and Bacteroides. Over the course of hospitalization, corrected GA and exposure to chorioamnionitis remained to have an effect on gut microbial composition. Two different enterotypes were found in the gut microbiota of preterm infants. One enriched in Escherichia-Shigella, and another enriched in uncharacterized Enterobacteriaceae, Klebsiella and Clostridium sensu stricto 1. Overall, HM and fortification with HMF were the most common feeding strategies. When consuming BMF, PT infants had higher growth rates than those consuming HMF. Milk and type of fortification were significantly associated with the abundance of Clostridium sensu stricto 1, Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus.Conclusions: This observational study shows the significant association between milk consumption and the exposure to HMF or BMF fortification in the fecal microbiota composition of preterm infants. Additionally, these results show the effect of other perinatal factors in the establishment and development of PT infant's gut microbiota.

2021 ◽  
Shadi Behfar ◽  
Alireza Nazari ◽  
Aliakbar Yousefi-Ahmadipour ◽  
Soheila Pourmasoumi ◽  
Ahmadreza Sayadi ◽  

Abstract Introduction: Innate immunity significantly participates in the tissue repair process. It has been documented that breastfeeding may alter immune responses. Thus, this project was designed to evaluate the effects of breastfeeding on the levels of TLR1-4, TNF-α, TGF-β, CCL2, and CCL3 in the prepuce tissue of neonates.Material and methods: This project was performed on the 90 samples (45 cases with breastfeeding and 45 cases without breastfeeding) of prepuce tissue of neonates. The tissues were homogenized and mRNA levels of TLR1-4 and protein levels of TNF-α, TGF-β, CCL2, and CCL3 were evaluated by Real-Time PCR and ELISA techniques, respectively.Results: Protein levels of TNF-α, CCL2, and CCL3 and mRNA levels of TLR4 were significantly decreased in the cases without breastfeeding when compared to the neonates with breastfeeding. There was a significant negative correlation between duration of pregnancy and mRNA levels of TLR1 in the neonates without breastfeeding.Conclusion: Due to the results, breastfeeding can modulate the expression of TLR4 and its related cytokines/chemokines to improve its wound healing and fight against pathogens.

Esmat Mohammadi Khamsian ◽  
Bahador Hajimohammadi ◽  
Gilda Eslami ◽  
Mohammad Hossein Fallahzadeh ◽  
Saeede Sadat Hosseini

Background: Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular protozoan, causes toxoplasmosis. The aim of this study was molecular detection of T. gondii in breast and goat milk samples by the molecular method in the central Iran. Methods: Totally, 300 human' and 200 goats' milk samples were collected randomly from different regions of central Iran in 2018. DNA extraction was performed by the salting-out method. Molecular detection of the parasite was done by nested-PCR using the specific primer pairs. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS 23 using descriptive and Chi-square tests. Results: Out of 300 human milk samples, 1 sample (0.3%) was infected with T. gondii. Out of 200 samples of goat milk, 11 samples (5.5%) showed infection with T. gondii. The frequency of infection in goat's milk samples was 4.36% in the south and west, 1.9% in northern regions, and 2% in eastern regions of the province. The statistical analysis showed no significant difference between toxoplasmosis and different geographical regions in the province. Conclusion: Because of the popularity of the goat milk and the transfection probability with the milk to humans, it is recommended to boil milk prior to use. Furthermore, case contamination of T. gondii in the human milk sample showed one of the important paths for infection transmission, which requires further studies.

2021 ◽  
Shaikh Adil ◽  
B.M. Mehta ◽  
Atanu H. Jana

Mare’s milk has long been considered to have special nutritive and therapeutic properties in Mongolia and southern states of the former Soviet Union. It is now gaining popularity in some parts in Europe also. Mares’ milk is characterized by their unique nutritional profile. Therefore, interest has increased in the use of mare’s milk for human nutrition in the past several years, especially in France and Germany. As compared to many other mammal species, mare’s milk is highly appreciated for similarity to human milk in terms of chemical composition allowing its use as a substitute for mother’s milk in infant feeding. Mare’s milk also has been used for the treatment of certain human pathologies such as hepatitis, chronic ulcer and tuberculosis. This review dwells on the chemical composition, nutritional value and various health-promoting properties of mare’s milk.

Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (12) ◽  
pp. 4257
Denise Hoch ◽  
Waltraud Brandl ◽  
Jasmin Strutz ◽  
Harald C. Köfeler ◽  
Mireille N. M. van Poppel ◽  

(1) Background: Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are present in maternal serum during pregnancy and their composition is altered in gestational diabetes (GDM). HMOs are also in fetal cord blood and in contact with the feto-placental endothelium, potentially affecting its functions, such as angiogenesis. We hypothesized that cord blood HMOs are changed in GDM and contribute to increased feto-placental angiogenesis, hallmark of GDM. (2) Methods: Using HPLC, we quantified HMOs in cord blood of women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT, n = 25) or GDM (n = 26). We investigated in vitro angiogenesis using primary feto-placental endothelial cells (fpECs) from term placentas after healthy pregnancy (n = 10), in presence or absence of HMOs (100 µg/mL) isolated from human milk, 3′-sialyllactose (3′SL, 30 µg/mL) and lactose (glycan control) and determined network formation (Matrigel assay), proliferation (MTT assays), actin organization (F-actin staining), tube formation (fibrin tube formation assay) and sprouting (spheroid sprouting assay). (3) Results: 3′SL was higher in GDM cord blood. HMOs increased network formation, HMOs and 3’SL increased proliferation and F-actin staining. In fibrin assays, HMOs and 3’SL increased total tube length by 24% and 25% (p < 0.05), in spheroid assays, by 32% (p < 0.05) and 21% (p = 0.056), respectively. Lactose had no effect. (4) Conclusions: Our study suggests a novel role of HMOs in feto-placental angiogenesis and indicates a contribution of HMO composition to altered feto-placental vascularization in GDM.

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