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Food Control ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 132 ◽  
pp. 108559
Sun Hee Moon ◽  
Zulema Udaondo ◽  
Kaleb Z. Abram ◽  
Xinhui Li ◽  
Xu Yang ◽  

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262308
Woyinshet Worku ◽  
Moges Desta ◽  
Tadesse Menjetta

Background Food-borne diseases related to the consumption of meat and its products had public health importance worldwide. The problem became worst in Ethiopia as the result of the tradition of eating raw cattle meat. Salmonella species and Escherichia coli are important food-borne pathogens associated with meat contamination. Hence the current study aimed to assess the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella species and Extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing Escherichia coli from raw cattle meat at butcher houses in Hawassa city, Sidama regional state, Ethiopia. Method A cross-sectional study was done on the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Salmonella species and Extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing E.coli from raw cattle meat at butcher houses in Hawassa city from September to December 2020. Socio-demographic data were collected using a structured questionnaire and raw cattle meat and swab samples were collected from meat cutting equipment. The collected samples transported using icebox to Hawassa University College of Medicine and Health Sciences Microbiology Laboratory for identification. Samples were grown on different culture media and antimicrobial susceptibility tests were determined by using Kirby disc diffusion method. Data were entered and analyzed into SPSS version 23. Descriptive statistics were done and P-value < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Result The overall prevalence of salmonella and ESBL producing E.coli among 556 samples collected from 278 butcher houses was 36 (6.47%) (95% CI: 1.68–1.79) of which 13 (2.3%) were ESBL producing E.coli and 23(4.1%) were salmonella species. Poor hand washing practice (AOR = 2.208; 95% CI: 1.249–3.904) and touching birr while selling meat (AOR = 0.75; 95% CI: (0.433–1.299) were found to be significantly associated with the prevalence of salmonella species and E.coli on cattle meat. The isolates showed moderate levels of resistance (60–70%) against Amoxicillin/ clavulanic acid and high susceptibility (85–100%) against gentamicin, cotrimoxazole, ceftazidime, and tetracycline and the overall multidrug resistance was 33.3%. Conclusion This study revealed moderately high prevalence of salmonella and E.coli due to poor hygiene and sanitation practices in the butcher shops. Furthermore, the existence of ESBL producing E.coli isolates clearly indicate the possible threat to public health. Therefore, inspection by the right agencies must be implemented in order to prevent food-borne outbreaks and antimicrobial resistance.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Hui Liu ◽  
Suishan Qiu ◽  
Minghao Chen ◽  
Jun Lyu ◽  
Guangchao Yu ◽  

Abstract Background Prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing-Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) has risen in patients with urinary tract infections. The objective of this study was to determine explore the risk factors of ESBL-E infection in hospitalized patients and establish a predictive model. Methods This retrospective study included all patients with an Enterobacteriaceae-positive urine sample at the first affiliated hospital of Jinan university from January 2018 to December 2019. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of ESBL-E were analyzed, and multivariate analysis of related factors was performed. From these, a nomogram was established to predict the possibility of ESBL-E infection. Simultaneously, susceptibility testing of a broad array of carbapenem antibiotics was performed on ESBL-E cultures to explore possible alternative treatment options. Results Of the total 874 patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs), 272 (31.1%) were ESBL-E positive. In the predictive analysis, five variables were identified as independent risk factors for ESBL-E infection: male gender (OR = 1.607, 95% CI 1.066–2.416), older age (OR = 4.100, 95% CI 1.678–12.343), a hospital stay in preceding 3 months (OR = 1.872, 95% CI 1.141–3.067), invasive urological procedure (OR = 1.810, 95% CI 1.197–2.729), and antibiotic use within the previous 3 months (OR = 1.833, 95% CI 1.055–3.188). In multivariate analysis, the data set was divided into a training set of 611 patients and a validation set of 263 patients The model developed to predict ESBL-E infection was effective, with the AuROC of 0.650 (95% CI 0.577–0.725). Among the antibiotics tested, several showed very high effectiveness against ESBL-E: amikacin (85.7%), carbapenems (83.8%), tigecycline (97.1%) and polymyxin (98.2%). Conclusions The nomogram is useful for estimating a UTI patient’s likelihood of infection with ESBL-E. It could improve clinical decision making and enable more efficient empirical treatment. Empirical treatment may be informed by the results of the antibiotic susceptibility testing.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Bálint József Nagy ◽  
Bence Balázs ◽  
Isma Benmazouz ◽  
Péter Gyüre ◽  
László Kövér ◽  

During winter, a large number of rooks gather and defecate at the park of a university clinic. We investigated the prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)–producing Escherichia coli in these birds and compared recovered isolates with contemporary human isolates. In 2016, fecal samples were collected from 112 trap-captured rooks and investigated for presence of ESBL producers using eosin methylene blue agar supplemented by 2 mg/L cefotaxime; 2,455 contemporary human fecal samples of patients of the clinics sent for routine culturing were tested similarly. In addition, 42 ESBL-producing E. coli isolates collected during the same period from inpatients were also studied. ESBL genes were sought for by PCR and were characterized by sequencing; E. coli ST131 clones were identified. Epidemiological relatedness was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and confirmed using whole genome sequencing in selected cases. Thirty-seven (33%) of sampled rooks and 42 (1.7%) of human stools yielded ESBL-producing E coli. Dominant genes were blaCTX–M–55 and blaCTX–M–27 in corvid, blaCTX–M–15 and blaCTX–M–27 in human isolates. ST162 was common among rooks. Two rook-derived E. coli belonged to ST131 C1-M27, which was also predominant (10/42) among human fecal and (15/42) human clinical isolates. Another potential link between rooks and humans was a single ST744 rook isolate grouped with one human fecal and three clinical isolates. Despite possible contact, genotypes shared between rooks and humans were rare. Thus, rooks are important as long-distance vectors and reservoirs of ESBL-producing E. coli rather than direct sources of infections to humans in our setting.

Renru Han ◽  
Xuelin Yang ◽  
Yang Yang ◽  
Yan Guo ◽  
Dandan Yin ◽  

Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, especially for extended-spectrum β-lactamases-producing and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales , are disseminating rapidly around the world. Treatment options for these infections are limited, which prompt the development of novel or combinational therapies to combat the infections caused by multidrug-resistant pathogens.

Hatem Kallel ◽  
Stephanie Houcke ◽  
Dabor Resiere ◽  
Thibault Court ◽  
Cesar Roncin ◽  

Intensive care unit–acquired infection (ICU-AI) and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase–producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) carriage are a major concern worldwide. Our objective was to investigate the impact of ESBL-PE carriage on ICU-AI. Our study is prospective, observational, and noninterventional. It was conducted over a 5-year period (Jan 2013–Dec 2017) in the medical-surgical intensive care unit of the Cayenne General Hospital (French Amazonia). During the study period, 1,340 patients were included, 271 (20.2%) developed ICU-AI, and 16.2% of these were caused by ESBL-PE. The main sites of ICU-AI were ventilator-associated pneumonia (35.8%) and primary bloodstream infection (29.8%). The main responsible microorganisms were Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-P in 35.8% of isolates), and Enterobacter cloacae (ESBL-P in 29.8% of isolates). Prior ESBL-PE carriage was diagnosed in 27.6% of patients with ICU-AI. In multivariable analysis, the sole factor associated with ESBL-PE as the responsible organism of ICU-AI was ESBL-PE carriage before ICU-AI (P < 0.001; odds ratio: 7.9 95% CI: 3.4-18.9). ESBL-PE carriers (74 patients) developed ICU-AI which was caused by ESBL-PE in 32 cases (43.2%). This proportion of patients carrying ESBL-PE who developed ICU-AI to the same microorganism was 51.2% in ESBL-P K. pneumoniae, 5.6% in ESBL-P Escherichia coli, and 40% in ESBL-P Enterobacter spp. NPV of ESBL-PE carriage to predict ICU-AI caused by ESBL-PE was above 94% and PPV was above 43%. Carriage of ESBL-P K pneumoniae and Enterobacter spp. is a strong predictor of ICU-AI caused by these two microorganisms.

2022 ◽  
Thomas Edwards ◽  
Christopher T Williams ◽  
Macrine Olwala ◽  
Pauline Andang'o ◽  
Walter Otenio ◽  

Objectives Neonatal sepsis, a major cause of death amongst infants in sub-Saharan Africa, is often gut derived. Impairments in immunity and the gut barrier in sick neonates allow colonisation by opportunistic pathogens such as Enterobacteriaceae to progress to blood stream infection. Colonisation by Enterobacteriaceae producing extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) or carbapenemase enzymes is particularly problematic and can lead to antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) or untreatable infections. We sought to explore the rates of colonisation by ESBL or carbapenemase producers and their genotypes in two neonatal units (NNUs) in West and East Africa. Methods Stool and rectal swab samples were taken at multiple timepoints from newborns admitted to the NNUs at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria and the Jaramogi Oginga Odinga Teaching and Referral Hospital, Kisumu, western Kenya. Samples were tested for ESBL and carbapenemase genes using a previously validated qPCR assay with high resolution melt analysis. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to examine colonisation rates at both sites. Results A total of 119 stool and rectal swab samples were taken from 42 infants admitted to the two NNUs. Six (14.3%) infants were extremely preterm (gestation <28 weeks), 19 (45.2%) were born by Caesarean section and 3 (8.6%) mothers were HIV positive. Median (IQR) duration of admission was 12.5 (5-26) days and 12 (28.6%) infants died. Overall, colonisation with ESBL (37 infants, 89%) was more common than with carbapenemase producers (26, 62.4%; P = 0.093). Median survival time before colonisation with ESBL organisms was 7 days and with carbapenemase producers 16 days (P=0.035). The majority of ESBL genes detected belonged to the CTX-M-1 (36/38; 95%), and CTX-M-9 (2/36; 5%) groups. The most prevalent carbapenemase was blaNDM (27/29, 93%). Single blaVIM (1/32, 3%) and blaOXA-48 genes (1/32, 3%) were also detected. Conclusions Gut colonisation of neonates by AMR organisms was common and occurred rapidly in NNUs in Kenya and Nigeria. Active surveillance of colonisation will improve the understanding of AMR in these settings and guide infection control and antibiotic prescribing practice to improve clinical outcomes.

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