This paper analyzes the dynamic stability of an isotropic viscoelastic Euler–Bernoulli nano-beam using piezoelectric materials. For this purpose, the size-dependent theory was used in the framework of the modified couple stress theory (MCST) for piezoelectric materials. In order to capture the geometrical nonlinearity, the von Karman strain displacement relation was applied. Hamilton’s principle was also employed to obtain the governing equations. Furthermore, the Galerkin method was used in order to convert the governing partial differential equations (PDEs) to a nonlinear second-order ordinary differential one. Dynamic stability analysis was performed and the effects of such parameters as viscoelastic coefficients, size effect, and piezoelectric coefficient were investigated. The results showed that in this system, saddle points, central points, Hopf bifurcation points, and fork bifurcation points could be created, and the phase portraits connecting these equilibrium points exhibit periodic orbits, heteroclinic orbits, and homoclinic orbits.