Ftir Spectroscopy
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10.5219/1647 ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
pp. 824-834
Author(s):  
Chunli Deng ◽  
Oksana Melnyk ◽  
Yanghe Luo

Potato starch was modified via heat-moisture treatment (HMT) under various reaction conditions. The effect of HMT on structural, physicochemical, and in vitro digestibility were investigated. HMT led to the rupture, adhesion and partial gelatinization, and agglomeration of the granules which surface became rougher, thereby increasing the particle size and resulting in the hollow structure located at the hilum of potato starch granules. XRD results showed an increased relative crystallinity and transformed crystalline structure from B-type to C-type with the extension of heat moisture treatment. FTIR spectroscopy results indicated that HMT might cause additional interactions between amylose-amylose, and/or amylose-amylopectin and/or amylopectin-amylopectin chains, which eventually leads to the increase of the mass of the carbonyl group and a hydroxyl group. HMT significantly decreased the peak viscosity, hold viscosity, and breakdown viscosity of starch, while the gelatinization temperature increased. The tHMT1, THMT100, and CHMT15 had the lowest content of RDS and there was no significant difference between the three samples, that is these three samples had the highest total content of SDS and RS.


Crystals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (9) ◽  
pp. 1124
Author(s):  
Laura Marincaș ◽  
Graziella Liana Turdean ◽  
Monica Toșa ◽  
Zsolt Kovács ◽  
Béla Kovács ◽  
...  

Adsorption and desorption properties of nano-hydroxyapatite (HAP) and silicon-modified hydroxyapatite (Si–HAP) were investigated with 4-aminopyridine (fampridine-4AP). The novelty of this research is the investigation of the suitability of the previously mentioned carriers for drug-delivery of 4AP. UV-VIS spectrophotometric results showed that the presence of silicon in the carrier did not significantly affect its adsorption capacity. The success of the adsorption was confirmed by thermal analysis (TG/DTA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). Drug release experiments, performed in simulated body fluid (SBF), revealed a drug release from Si–HAP that was five times slower than HAP, explained by the good chemical bonding between the silanol groups of the carrier and the 4AP functional groups. The electrochemical measurements showed a value of the polarization resistance of the charge transfer (Rct) more than five times smaller in the case of Si–HAP coating loaded with 4AP, so the charge transfer process was hindered. The electrochemical impedance results revealed that electron transfer was inhibited in the presence of 4AP, in concordance with the previously mentioned strong bonds. The silicon substitution in HAP leads to good chemical bonding with the drug and a slow release, respectively.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
nawal Madkhali ◽  
Saja Algessair

Abstract Recently, with the progress of research in amending and developing the properties of inorganic materials, researchers have become focused on using inexpensive and environmentally friendly materials such as organic materials from natural sources that have proven effective in improving the properties of materials in various applications. In recent years, melanin has become an attractive topic for researchers due to its distinctive structural properties that have been distinguished in various application fields. Here, we report the use of ultrasonication under UV radiation for synthesis. The influence of natural melanin on the structural, optical and thermal properties of TiO2 nanoparticles was investigated by using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and UV–Vis spectroscopy. It was observed that incorporating natural melanin on TiO2 nanoparticles (TiO2-Mel) occurred at approximately 2.01 eV with low value of Urbach energy around 100 meV indicates improvement in crystalline structure. Thermal results showed that TiO2-Mel is stable even with temperatures up to 400°C. According to the results obtained by the thermal stability of melanin with titanium dioxide can makes it a good candidate in many application such as solar cells and optoelectronic that require optical efficiency and thermal stability for long periods.


Pharmaceutics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (9) ◽  
pp. 1461
Author(s):  
Dana M. Suflet ◽  
Irina Popescu ◽  
Irina M. Pelin ◽  
Daniela L. Ichim ◽  
Oana M. Daraba ◽  
...  

Stable chitosan/PVA-based hydrogels were obtained by combining covalent and physical cross-linking methods. As covalent cross-linkers, epoxy agents with different chain lengths were used, while freeze–thaw cycles were applied for additional physical cross-linking. The chemical structure of the hydrogel was examined by FTIR spectroscopy whereas the morphology was analyzed by SEM, showing well-defined pores with dimensions of around 50 μm in diameter. It was proved that gel fraction and the network morphology were deeply influenced by the synthesis conditions. Chitosan/PVA hydrogel showed a relative high swelling rate, reaching equilibrium in the first hour. The values obtained for the elastic modulus were relatively low (3–30 kPa); as a result, these hydrogels are soft and very flexible, and are ideal candidates for medical applications as wound or oral dressings. In addition, the natural antimicrobial activity of chitosan was enhanced by in situ generation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) under UV irradiation. The total amount of Ag from hydrogel was determined by elemental analyses and its crystalline state was confirmed by XRD. The CS/PVA hydrogels entrapped with AgNPs exhibited high inhibitory activity against S. aureus and K. pneumonia. The vitality tests confirmed the lack of cytotoxicity of CS/PVA hydrogels without and with AgNPs.


2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Zhengguo Xiao ◽  
Yu Fang ◽  
Yinglin Song ◽  
Yanchao She ◽  
Changhai Tian ◽  
...  

A nitrogen-doped diamond crystal with (111) orientation was synthesized with an NaN3 additive in the FeNi-C system at a pressure of 6.5 GPa and a temperature of 1,310°C, using the temperature gradient growth (TGG) method. Spectroscopic properties such as the absorption spectrum and the Raman spectrum as well as the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum were studied. FTIR spectroscopy of the C-N vibrational modes at 1,344 and 1,130 cm−1 suggested a nitrogen content of 310 ppm. Its nonlinear optical (NLO) response was investigated using the Z-scan technique under the femtosecond regime. Due to the presence of nitrogen defects, the synthesized crystal performed large nonlinear absorption under both 800- and 532-nm wavelength excitations. However, intrinsic diamond only experiences nonlinear refraction under these two wavelength excitations. Its broadband NLO properties indicated that nitrogen-doped diamond crystals were suitable for the application of ultrafast optical devices.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Francesca Deidda ◽  
Nicole Bozzi Cionci ◽  
Miriam Cordovana ◽  
Ilenia Campedelli ◽  
Fabio Fracchetti ◽  
...  

Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, a technology traditionally used in chemistry to determine the molecular composition of a wide range of sample types, has gained growing interest in microbial typing. It is based on the different vibrational modes of the covalent bonds between atoms of a given sample, as bacterial cells, induced by the absorption of infrared radiation. This technique has been largely used for the study of pathogenic species, especially in the clinical field, and has been proposed also for the typing at different subspecies levels. The high throughput, speed, low cost, and simplicity make FTIR spectroscopy an attractive technique also for industrial applications, in particular, for probiotics. The aim of this study was to compare FTIR spectroscopy with established genotyping methods, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), whole-genome sequencing (WGS), and multilocus sequence typing (MLST), in order to highlight the FTIR spectroscopy potential discriminatory power at strain level. Our study focused on bifidobacteria, an important group of intestinal commensals generally recognized as probiotics. For their properties in promoting and maintaining health, bifidobacteria are largely marketed by the pharmaceutical, food, and dairy industries. Strains belonging to Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis were taken into consideration together with some additional type strains. For B. longum subsp. longum, it was possible to discriminate the strains with all the methods used. Although two isolates were shown to be strictly phylogenetically related, constituting a unique cluster, based on PFGE, WGS, and MLST, no clustering was observed with FTIR. For B. animalis subsp. lactis group, PFGE, WGS, and MLST were non-discriminatory, and only one strain was easily distinguished. On the other hand, FTIR discriminated all the isolates one by one, and no clustering was observed. According to these results, FTIR analysis is not only equivalent to PFGE, WGS, and MLST, but also for some strains, in particular, for B. animalis subsp. lactis group, more informative, being able to differentiate strains not discernible with the other two methods based on phenotypic variations likely deriving from certain genetic changes. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy has highlighted the possibility of using the cell surface as a kind of barcode making tracing strains possible, representing an important aspect in probiotic applications. Furthermore, this work constitutes the first investigation on bifidobacterial strain typing using FTIR spectroscopy.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (18) ◽  
pp. 8463
Author(s):  
Rony Barboux ◽  
Faisl Bousta ◽  
Patrick Di Martino

The dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans is the most destructive fungal agent of wood building materials in Europe, Russia, North America, and Japan. The identification of this wood-deteriorating agent and the discrimination of different fungal isolates is very important for the control of buildings in general and for the preservation of cultural heritage in particular. The objective of the study was to develop a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) method coupled with a partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) for the sample preparation and identification of S. lacrymans. Five distinct S. lacrymans strains were analysed and compared to two strains of unrelated fungal species. Different methods of mycelial growth, sample preparation, and FTIR spectral data normalisation were compared. FTIR analysis of a harvested mycelium grown on the surface of a polyether sulfone microfiltration membrane deposited on a malt extract agar medium, followed by vector normalization and PLS-DA statistical analysis, resulted in 100% correct attribution at phylum, species, and strain level, regardless of the type of standardization used. This study confirms the applicability of FTIR spectroscopy for the identification of S. lacrymans and the discrimination of different strains belonging to this species.


Coatings ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (9) ◽  
pp. 1087
Author(s):  
Alexander Konstantas ◽  
Ioannis Karapanagiotis ◽  
Stamatis C. Boyatzis

A decorated and carved wooden door of the late Byzantine period (14th Century), which belongs to the Dionysiou Monastery in Mount Athos, Greece, constitutes an important relic of valuable technological information due to its construction technology and history. Seventeen (17) samples detached from the door are studied using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX), and micro-Raman and FTIR spectroscopy. The following materials are identified in the cross sections of the door samples using micro-Raman spectroscopy: orpiment, lead white, red lead, red ochre, cinnabar, carbon black, gypsum, anhydrite, and calcite, and an organic colourant of the indigoid family. SEM-EDX studies supported to the aforementioned Raman results. Interestingly, a combination of inorganic and organic colourants was detected. The main goals of this particular study were to: (a) reveal the colour palette and materials, (b) identify the type of varnish and its condition, and (c) contribute to future restoration processes and aid conservators in selecting compatible restoration materials.


Polymers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (18) ◽  
pp. 3024
Author(s):  
M. Hassan Raza ◽  
Abraiz Khattak ◽  
Asghar Ali ◽  
Safi Ullah Butt ◽  
Bilal Iqbal ◽  
...  

Degradation of silicon rubber due to heat and humidity affect its performance in outdoor applications. To analyze the effects of high temperature and humidity on room temperature vulcanized (RTV) silicone rubber (SiR) and its composites, this study was performed. Five different sample compositions including neat silicone rubber (nSiR), microcomposites (15 wt% silica(SMC 15% SiO2) and 15 wt% ATH(SMC 15% ATH), nanocomposite (2.5 wt% silica(SNC 2.5% SiO2) and hybrid composite (10 wt% micro alumina trihydrate with 2 wt% nano silica(SMNC 10% ATH 2% SiO2) were prepared and subjected to 70 ˚C temperature and 80% relative humidity in an environmental chamber for 120 h. Contact angle, optical microscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were employed to analyze the recovery properties before and after applying stresses. Different trends of degradation and recovery were observed for different concentrations of composites. Addition of fillers improved the overall performance of composites and SMC 15% ATH composite performed better than other composites. For high temperature and humidity, the ATH-based microcomposite was recommended over silica due to its superior thermal retardation properties of ATH. It has been proved that ATH filler is able to withstand high temperature and humidity.


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