optimal parameter
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2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-31
Mengmeng Ge ◽  
Jin-Hee Cho ◽  
Dongseong Kim ◽  
Gaurav Dixit ◽  
Ing-Ray Chen

Resource constrained Internet-of-Things (IoT) devices are highly likely to be compromised by attackers, because strong security protections may not be suitable to be deployed. This requires an alternative approach to protect vulnerable components in IoT networks. In this article, we propose an integrated defense technique to achieve intrusion prevention by leveraging cyberdeception (i.e., a decoy system) and moving target defense (i.e., network topology shuffling). We evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of our proposed technique analytically based on a graphical security model in a software-defined networking (SDN)-based IoT network. We develop four strategies (i.e., fixed/random and adaptive/hybrid) to address “when” to perform network topology shuffling and three strategies (i.e., genetic algorithm/decoy attack path-based optimization/random) to address “how” to perform network topology shuffling on a decoy-populated IoT network, and we analyze which strategy can best achieve a system goal, such as prolonging the system lifetime, maximizing deception effectiveness, maximizing service availability, or minimizing defense cost. We demonstrated that a software-defined IoT network running our intrusion prevention technique at the optimal parameter setting prolongs system lifetime, increases attack complexity of compromising critical nodes, and maintains superior service availability compared with a counterpart IoT network without running our intrusion prevention technique. Further, when given a single goal or a multi-objective goal (e.g., maximizing the system lifetime and service availability while minimizing the defense cost) as input, the best combination of “when” and “how” strategies is identified for executing our proposed technique under which the specified goal can be best achieved.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
pp. 551-560
Yanmei Wang ◽  
Siqing Li ◽  
Hongwei Sun ◽  
Changyong Huang ◽  
Naser Youssefi

Energy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 240 ◽  
pp. 122800
Jian Wang ◽  
Yi-Peng Xu ◽  
Chen She ◽  
Ping Xu ◽  
Hamid Asadi Bagal

Shivani Parmar

Abstract: Welding is an enormously essential manufacturing technique which allows the users to create permanent joints efficiently, due to its durability this process is extensively used in various industries like automotive, construction as well as in the aviation industry. The present study focuses on the optimization of the Metal Arc Welding using VIKOR method. Four input variables Current, Voltage, Wire Feed Rate and Gas Flow Rate are considered to study their effect on three responses tensile, bending and hardness on the weldments of AISI 1008 low carbon steel material. Experiments were planned as per Taguchi‘s L9 OA. As traditional Taguchi method is not adequate to solve multi responses problem, to overcome this limitation MCDM approach VIKOR analysis has been carried out for obtaining optimal parameters setting for multi-response optimization. Three specimens (for tensile, bending, and hardness) for each experimental run are fabricated for the measurement of respective strength and hardness. Investigation is done by following the steps of VIKOR method, and optimal parameter setting for multi quality response is obtained corresponding to the lower VIKOR index value. Keywords: Metal Inert Gas (MIG) Welding, VIKOR, S/N ratio, ANOVA

2022 ◽  
Jiaying Zhang ◽  
Rafael L. Bras ◽  
Marcos Longo ◽  
Tamara Heartsill Scalley

Abstract. Hurricanes commonly disturb and damage tropical forests. It is predicted that changes in climate will result in changes in hurricane frequency and intensity. Modeling is needed to investigate the potential response of forests to future disturbances. Unfortunately, existing models of forests dynamics are not presently able to account for hurricane disturbances. We implement the Hurricane Disturbance in the Ecosystem Demography model (ED2) (ED2-HuDi). The hurricane disturbance includes hurricane-induced immediate mortality and subsequent recovery modules. The parameterizations are based on observations at the Bisley Experimental Watersheds (BEW) in the Luquillo Experimental Forest in Puerto Rico. We add one new plant functional type (PFT) to the model—Palm, as palms cannot be categorized into one of the current existing PFTs and are known to be an abundant component of tropical forests worldwide. The model is calibrated with observations at BEW using the generalized likelihood uncertainty estimates (GLUE) approach. The optimal simulation obtained from GLUE has a mean relative error of −21 %, −12 %, and −15 % for stem density, basal area, and aboveground biomass, respectively. The optimal simulation also agrees well with the observation in terms of PFT composition (+1%, −8 %, −2 %, and +9 % differences in the percentages of Early, Mid, Late, and Palm PFTs, respectively) and size structure of the forest (+0.8 % differences in the percentage of large stems). Lastly, using the optimal parameter set, we study the impact of forest initial condition on the recovery of the forest from a single hurricane disturbance. The results indicate that, compared to a no-hurricane scenario, a single hurricane disturbance has little impact on forest structure (+1 % change in the percentage of large stems) and composition (< 1 % change in the percentage of each of the four PFTs) but leads to 5 % higher aboveground biomass after 80 years of succession. The assumption of a less severe hurricane disturbance leads to a 4 % increase in aboveground biomass.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 343
Fujue Huang ◽  
Xingsheng Xia ◽  
Yongsheng Huang ◽  
Shenghui Lv ◽  
Qiong Chen ◽  

The northeastern margin of the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau (QTP) is an agricultural protection area in China’s new development plan, and the primary region of winter wheat growth within QTP. Winter wheat monitoring is critical for understanding grain self-sufficiency, climate change, and sustainable socioeconomic and ecological development in the region. However, due to the complex terrain and high altitude of the region, with discontinuous arable land and the relatively low level of agricultural development, there are no effective localization methodologies for extracting and monitoring the detailed planting distribution information of winter wheat. In this study, Sentinel-2A/B data from 2019 to 2020, obtained through the Google Earth Engine platform, were used to build time series reference curves of vegetation indices in Minhe. Planting distribution information of winter wheat was extracted based on the phenology time-weighted dynamic time warping (PT-DTW) method, and the effects of different vegetation indices’ time series and their corresponding threshold parameters were compared. The results showed that: (1) the three vegetation indices—normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), normalized differential phenology index (NDPI), and normalized difference greenness index (NDGI)—maintained high mapping potential; (2) under the optimal threshold, >88% accuracy of index identification for winter wheat extraction was achieved; (3) due to improved extraction accuracy and resulting boundary range, NDPI and its corresponding optimal parameter (T = 0.05) performed the best. The process and results of this study have certain reference value for the study of winter wheat planting information change and the formulation of dynamic monitoring schemes in agricultural areas of QTP.

Xingfu Ma ◽  
Zhinong Li ◽  
Jiawei Xiang ◽  
Chengjun Wang

In this paper, a novel phoxonic crystal (PxC) structure composed of silicon, with optimal dual phononic band gap (PNBG) and photonic band gap (PTBG), is presented. Using the finite element analysis method, both the transmission characteristics and dispersion relation of PNBG and PTBG are calculated, and the existence of dual BGs is demonstrated by the means of the analysis of transmission for the PxC structure. The influences of structural parameters on the dual forbidden band characteristics are further explored, the sensitive structure parameters can be determined: the width of elastic beams, the length of square silicon, and the length of square hole. Using the orthogonal test, 25 experimental runs based on 3-factor and 5-level experiment are performed to finish the numerical experimental design and analysis. Four functional relationships can be acquired between the three sensitive parameters and dual BGs. Finally, the unified objective function method is employed to perform the construction of the single objective optimization model for the purpose of obtaining the optimal dual BGs and the corresponding optimal parameter combinations of the PxC structure. Such scheme can be used as the potential optimization way, which may find wide application in the development and design of PxCs.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Cheng Xu ◽  
Hongjun Wu ◽  
Yinong Zhang ◽  
Songyin Dai ◽  
Hongzhe Liu ◽  

The Internet of Vehicles and information security are key components of a smart city. Real-time road perception is one of the most difficult tasks. Traditional detection methods require manual adjustment of parameters, which is difficult, and is susceptible to interference from object occlusion, light changes, and road wear. Designing a robust road perception algorithm is still challenging. On this basis, we combine artificial intelligence algorithms and the 5G-V2X framework to propose a real-time road perception method. First, an improved model based on Mask R-CNN is implemented to improve the accuracy of detecting lane line features. Then, the linear and polynomial fitting methods of feature points in different fields of view are combined. Finally, the optimal parameter equation of the lane line can be obtained. We tested our method in complex road scenes. Experimental results show that, combined with 5G-V2X, this method ultimately has a faster processing speed and can sense road conditions robustly under various complex actual conditions.

Healthcare ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 109
Mohammad T. Abou-Kreisha ◽  
Humam K. Yaseen ◽  
Khaled A. Fathy ◽  
Ebeid A. Ebeid ◽  
Kamal A. ElDahshan

In this paper, we approach the problem of detecting and diagnosing COVID-19 infections using multisource scan images including CT and X-ray scans to assist the healthcare system during the COVID-19 pandemic. Here, a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system is proposed that utilizes analysis of the CT or X-ray to diagnose the impact of damage in the respiratory system per infected case. The CAD was utilized and optimized by hyper-parameters for shallow learning, e.g., SVM and deep learning. For the deep learning, mini-batch stochastic gradient descent was used to overcome fitting problems during transfer learning. The optimal parameter list values were found using the naïve Bayes technique. Our contributions are (i) a comparison among the detection rates of pre-trained CNN models, (ii) a suggested hybrid deep learning with shallow machine learning, (iii) an extensive analysis of the results of COVID-19 transition and informative conclusions through developing various transfer techniques, and (iv) a comparison of the accuracy of the previous models with the systems of the present study. The effectiveness of the proposed CAD is demonstrated using three datasets, either using an intense learning model as a fully end-to-end solution or using a hybrid deep learning model. Six experiments were designed to illustrate the superior performance of our suggested CAD when compared to other similar approaches. Our system achieves 99.94, 99.6, 100, 97.41, 99.23, and 98.94 accuracy for binary and three-class labels for the CT and two CXR datasets.

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