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2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
pp. 18-21
Anil Kumar Gupta ◽  
Gaurav Jung Shah ◽  
Ram Jiban Prasad

Introduction: The mandibular foramen is located on the medial surface of the ramus of mandible through which inferior alveolar nerve and vessels pass and supply the lower jaw. For dentists inferior alveolar nerve block is important to anesthetize the lower jaw for conducting various surgical procedures. Aims: To determine the accurate position of mandibular foramen through which inferior alveolar nerve and vessels were passing and supply the lower jaw and its clinical importance. Methods: This study was conducted on 35 dry mandible bones consisting of 70 mandibular foramens of unknown sex. All the important parameters were studied using vernier caliper. Results: The mean distance of mandibular foramen from mandibular notch was 21.00 mm on right side and 20.29 mm on left side, from posterior border was 12.63 mm on right side and 12.37 mm on left side, from angle of mandible was 20.60 mm on right side and 20.46 mm on left side, from base of the mandible was 23.57 mm on right side and 23.6 mm on left side, from anterior border was 16.74 mm on right side and 16.89 mm on left side. Conclusion: The accurate position of mandibular foramen varies. The knowledge of the average distance of mandibular foramen from various landmarks is useful for dental anesthesia and also helps to avoid complications.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (12) ◽  
pp. e245024
Ajay Chikara ◽  
Sasidhar Reddy Karnati ◽  
Kailash Chand Kurdia ◽  
Yashwant Sakaray

A 30-year-old man presented with colicky abdominal pain for 2 months, associated with occasional episodes of bilious vomiting. He had a history of similar complaints at the age of 16 and 26 years. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography abdomen was consistent with a diagnosis of left paraduodenal hernia. On laparoscopy a 3 × 3 cm hernial defect was identified in the left paraduodenal fossa (fossa of Landzert). Contents were jejunal, and proximal ileal loops which were dilated and edematous. Anterior border of the sac was formed by the inferior mesenteric vein and left branch of the left colic artery. Initial reduction of contents was easy. However, complete reduction proved to be difficult due to adhesions with the sac opening, the hernial sac instead laid open by dividing the Inferior Mesentric Vein (IMV) (anterior border of defect) using a vascular stapler. The patient was discharged on postoperative day 3 in a stable condition. On follow-up the patient is doing well.

2021 ◽  
Vol 49 (12) ◽  
pp. 030006052110609
Jing Yang ◽  
Zhirong Wang ◽  
Qianzhong Cao ◽  
Yiyao Wang ◽  
Jieyi Wu ◽  

Objective To assess a new method to measure the distance of the needle passage from the ciliary sulcus to the corneal limbus anterior border (CTC) in eyes with ectopia lentis directly in vivo via endoscopy and to further evaluate the correlations among the CTC, age, automated horizontal white-to-white distance (WTW), and ocular axial length (AL). Methods The WTW and AL were measured using an optical biometer. An intraocular endoscope was used during transscleral suture fixation of posterior chamber intraocular lenses to identify the true location of the ciliary sulcus. Linear regression analysis was used to assess the correlation between the CTC and other ocular biological parameters, including age, WTW, and AL. Results Thirty eyes of 30 children with ectopia lentis were evaluated. A statistically significant correlation was found between age and the CTC. The CTC could be predicted by the equation CTC = 0.1313 × Age + 0.9666. No statistically significant correlations were found between CTC and WTW, CTC and AL, WTW and AL, or WTW and age. Conclusion Endoscopy is useful for precisely suturing intraocular lens haptics in the real ciliary sulcus. Age can be used as an equivalent parameter for prediction of the true ciliary sulcus location.

Dong Liu ◽  
Min Huang

Two new species belonging to the family Steganacaridae are described from Oriental part of China: Plonaphacarus luxiensis sp. nov. differs from Plonaphacarus concavus Liu, Wu & Chen, 2011 by the long and stout interlamellar and lamellar setae, lateral prodorsal carinae absent, exobothridial setae vestigial, anterodorsal part of notogaster not concave dorsally, notogastral setae c1 and anal setae short and spiniform, setae c1 positioned close to anterior border of notogaster and setae d on femora I distanced to distal end of segment; Plonaphacarus hailingensis sp. nov. differs from congeneric species by the presence of heterotrichy of notogastral setae, in which setae c1, c2 and c3 long and flagellate distally, prodorsum with median crista and posterior furrows, sensilli long and setiform, and rostral setae short, spiniform and semi-erect. A key to all known species of Plonaphacarus from China are provided to facilitate identification of this group.

2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
Kun Hwang ◽  
Xiajing Wu ◽  
Chan Yong Park

Abstract Introduction Diastasis of the pubic symphysis has been reported to occur in 13–16% of pelvic ring injuries. In Asians, there are only a few data showing the width of the pubic symphysis. The aim of this study is to see the width of pubic symphysis relating to age and sex in Koreans. Methods Width of pubic symphysis was measured in pelvis AP and pelvic CT of 784 peoples (392 males, 392 females). Results In supine AP, the width at the upper end was 4.8±2.5 mm (males; 3.46±1.38 mm, females; 4.04±2.76 mm). The width at the midpoint was 4.7±2.0 mm (males; 4.64±1.58 mm, females; 4.75±2.29 mm). The width at the lower end was 4.8±2.5 mm (males; 4.58±2.19 mm, females; 5.08±2.76 mm). In abducted AP, the width at the upper end was 3.8±2.9 mm (males; 3.65±1.50 mm, females; 3.97±3.85 mm). The width at the midpoint was 4.6±2.3 mm (males; 4.45±2.16 mm, females; 5.18±3.79 mm). The width at the lower end was 4.8±3.1 mm (males; 4.55±1.30 mm, females; 4.74±3.06 mm). In axial CT, the width at the anterior border was 15.0±6.2 mm (males; 14.50±6.62 mm, females; 16.44±6.22 mm). The width at the narrowest point was 3.1±1.5 mm (males; 3.19±1.53 mm, females; 3.09±1.50 mm). The width at the widest point was 4.1±1.6 mm (males; 4.27±1.60 mm, females; 4.00±1.50 mm). The width at the posterior border was 2.3±1.3 mm (males: 2.20±1.30 mm, females; 2.44±1.40 mm). Axial thickness was 27.1±5.3 mm (males; 29.48±4.60 mm, females; 24.70±4.82 mm). In coronal CT, the width at the upper end was 3.1±4.1 mm (males; 2.28±1.26 mm, females; 3.83±5.48 mm). The width at beginning of widening was 3.6±4.5 mm (males; 2.68±1.63 mm, females; 4.54±6.08 mm). The width at the lower end was 20.5±8.2 mm (males; 17.49±4.53 mm, females; 23.60±9.86 mm). Coronal thickness was 20.4±7.1 mm (males; 24.50±5.98 mm, females; 16.23±5.61 mm). In supine film, width significantly increased with age at the upper end (p=0.022) and midpoint (p< 0.001); however, it decreased at the lower end (p< 0.001). In abduction film, width at midpoint increased with age (p=0.003). Conclusion Pelvic malunion should be defined according to the population and age. These results could be a reference in assessing the quality of reduction after internal fixation of the patients with traumatic diastasis of the pubic symphysis.

William L E Malins ◽  
Hamish Walker ◽  
John Guirguis ◽  
Muhammad Riaz ◽  
Daniel B Saleh

Abstract Background During rhytidectomies, the cervical branch of the facial nerve (CBFN) can easily be encountered, and potentially injured, when releasing the cervical retaining ligaments in the lateral neck. This nerve has been shown to occasionally co-innervate the depressor anguli oris muscle, and damage to it can thus potentially compromise outcomes with a post-operative palsy. Objectives To examine the lateral cervical anatomy specific to the CBFN, to ascertain if the position of the nerve can be predicted, enhancing safety of the platysmal flap separation and dissection from this lateral zone of adhesion. Methods Eleven cadaveric hemifaces were dissected and the distance between the medial border of sternocleidomastoid (SCM), and the CBFN was measured at three key points: (1) ‘Superior’: the distance between SCM and the nerve at the level of the angle of the mandible in neutral. (2) ‘Narrowest’: the narrowest distance measurable between the ‘superior’ and ‘inferior’ points as the CBFN descends into the neck medial to the SCM. (3) ‘Inferior’: the distance at the most distal part of the cervical nerve identified before its final intramuscular course. Results The average distances (in mms) were: Superior = 12.1 (range: 10.1-15.4), Narrowest = 8.8 (range: 5.6-12.2) and Inferior = 10.9 (range: 7.9-16.7). Conclusions There is a narrow range between the nerve and the anterior border of SCM. We thus propose a safe corridor where lateral deep plane dissection can be performed to offer cervical retaining ligament release, with reduced risk of endangering the CBFN.

Zootaxa ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 4952 (2) ◽  
pp. 257-274

We describe a new species of the genus Subdoluseps Freitas, Datta-Roy, Karanth, Grismer & Siler from a coastal area in southern Vietnam. Subdoluseps vietnamensis sp. nov. is characterized by the following morphological characters: medium size in adults (snout-vent length up to 48.7 mm); tail length/snout-vent length ratio 1.04; toes not reaching finger when limbs adpressed; 27–30 midbody scale rows, smooth; 55–57 paravertebral scales; 55–62 ventral scale rows; 64–74 subcaudal scales; frontoparietal scale single; four supraoculars; prefrontals not in contact with one another; two loreal scales; seven supralabials; ear-opening with two lobules on the anterior border; smooth lamellae beneath finger III 9 or 10 and toe IV 12–15; six enlarged precloacal scales; and four distinct black stripes on dorsum. The new species differs genetically from its closest congeners, S. bowringii (Günther) and S. frontoparietale (Taylor), by uncorrected p-distances of 10.0% and 9.5%, respectively in ND1 sequences, and clusters into the same matriline with these two congeners on the phylogenetic trees. 

2020 ◽  
Vol 2020 ◽  
pp. 1-6
Alexander Karatzanis ◽  
Stylianos Velegrakis ◽  
Georgia Liva ◽  
Dionysios Kyrmizakis ◽  
Emmanuel Prokopakis

Background. Buccal space tumors constitute rare pathologies with significant histological diversity. They may pose serious diagnostic and therapeutic challenges for the head and neck surgeon. Methods. A case of buccal space tumor diagnosed and treated in a tertiary center is presented. Clinical presentation, imaging, and surgical approach are discussed, followed by review of the literature. Results. A 79-year-old male patient with a slowly growing painless mass on the right cheek presented to a head and neck reference center. Imaging revealed a tumor of the right buccal space with nonspecific characteristics. Imaging studies revealed extended infiltration of the masseter muscle as well as the anterior border of the parotid gland. FNA biopsy was performed but was nondiagnostic. The decision of surgical excision with a modified parotidectomy incision was taken. The lesion was completely excised with preservation of neighboring facial nerve branches and ipsilateral Stensen’s duct. The postoperative course was uneventful. Histological examination showed CLL/Lymphoma, and the patient was referred to the hematology department for staging and further management. Conclusion. Differential diagnosis of buccal space masses is very diverse. Despite challenges in the diagnostic and therapeutic approach, these entities may be managed surgically with minimal morbidity.

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