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2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-16
Author(s):  
Bradley Feiger ◽  
Erick Lorenzana-Saldivar ◽  
Colin Cooke ◽  
Roarke Horstmeyer ◽  
Muath Bishawi ◽  
...  

Segmentation and reconstruction of arteries is important for a variety of medical and engineering fields, such as surgical planning and physiological modeling. However, manual methods can be laborious and subject to a high degree of human variability. In this work, we developed various convolutional neural network ( CNN ) architectures to segment Stanford type B aortic dissections ( TBADs ), characterized by a tear in the descending aortic wall creating a normal channel of blood flow called a true lumen and a pathologic channel within the wall called a false lumen. We introduced several variations to the two-dimensional ( 2D ) and three-dimensional (3 D ) U-Net, where small stacks of slices were inputted into the networks instead of individual slices or whole geometries. We compared these variations with a variety of CNN segmentation architectures and found that stacking the input data slices in the upward direction with 2D U-Net improved segmentation accuracy, as measured by the Dice similarity coefficient ( DC ) and point-by-point average distance ( AVD ), by more than 15\% . Our optimal architecture produced DC scores of 0.94, 0.88, and 0.90 and AVD values of 0.074, 0.22, and 0.11 in the whole aorta, true lumen, and false lumen, respectively. Altogether, the predicted reconstructions closely matched manual reconstructions.


2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
pp. 18-21
Author(s):  
Anil Kumar Gupta ◽  
Gaurav Jung Shah ◽  
Ram Jiban Prasad

Introduction: The mandibular foramen is located on the medial surface of the ramus of mandible through which inferior alveolar nerve and vessels pass and supply the lower jaw. For dentists inferior alveolar nerve block is important to anesthetize the lower jaw for conducting various surgical procedures. Aims: To determine the accurate position of mandibular foramen through which inferior alveolar nerve and vessels were passing and supply the lower jaw and its clinical importance. Methods: This study was conducted on 35 dry mandible bones consisting of 70 mandibular foramens of unknown sex. All the important parameters were studied using vernier caliper. Results: The mean distance of mandibular foramen from mandibular notch was 21.00 mm on right side and 20.29 mm on left side, from posterior border was 12.63 mm on right side and 12.37 mm on left side, from angle of mandible was 20.60 mm on right side and 20.46 mm on left side, from base of the mandible was 23.57 mm on right side and 23.6 mm on left side, from anterior border was 16.74 mm on right side and 16.89 mm on left side. Conclusion: The accurate position of mandibular foramen varies. The knowledge of the average distance of mandibular foramen from various landmarks is useful for dental anesthesia and also helps to avoid complications.


Author(s):  
Andres Valencia Acuña ◽  
◽  
Brian Meneses Claudio ◽  
Alexi Delgado

In recent years being able to have access to the internet has become a tool not only to be able to communicate in the distance but it is a great tool to be able to feed knowledge, it is because of them that children have a great educational utility and after this pandemic in Peru it was necessary to close schools, to be able to give remote classes or virtual classes. To solve the problem, we propose to be able to design a network of radio links whereby means of a base station of emission and reception, with an antenna of sectorial type and directional antennas to be able to realize a Point – Multipoint link which will be able to manage the quality of signal by means of a routing with functions of control of speeds for each connection of each home. It was the result that the connections of the radio link at an average distance from the coverage that the network had the signal was better and that the connections that were very far or close to the coverage area had complications, but despite this the connections were sufficient to be able to maintain the virtual classes that is what was planned. It is recommended that for a better connection and complete coverage it would be to reinforce the broadcast base with more sectoral antennas in the network. Keywords- Radio link, Point - Multipoint, Router, Download speed, Upload speed.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
C. Zhang ◽  
D. Zhou ◽  
B. Hou

The Zr65Cu18Ni7Al10 bulk metallic glass with smaller diameter exhibits higher fracture strength under dynamic compression, which is ascribed to concentration of flow defect. The density of shear bands in the sample surface will increase with decreasing of the diameter, whereas, average distance and width of tear ridges in the fracture surface will increase with larger diameter. In addition, the volume of shear transformation zone can be estimated, which presents a ductile-to-brittle transition with the change of diameter. The physical graph of shear transformation zone can be obtained from the experimental analysis.


Author(s):  
Alan T. Murray ◽  
Antonio Ortiz ◽  
Seonga Cho

AbstractOver the past 20 years, professional and collegiate baseball has undergone a transformation, with statistics and analytics increasingly factoring into most of the decisions being made on the field. One particular example of the increased role of analytics is in the positioning of outfielders, who are tasked with tracking down balls hit to the outfield to record outs and minimize potential offensive damage. This paper explores the potential of location analytics to enhance the strategic positioning of players, enabling improved response and performance. We implement a location optimization model to analyze collegiate ball-tracking data, seeking outfielder locations that simultaneously minimize the average distance to a batted ball and maximize the weighted importance of batted ball coverage within a response standard. Trade-off outfielder configurations are compared to observed fielder positioning, finding that location models and spatial optimization can lead to performance improvements ranging from 1 to 3%, offering a significant strategic advantage over the course of a season.


Author(s):  
Guilherme de Sousa Pinheiro ◽  
Roberto Chiari Quintão ◽  
Vitor Bertoli Nascimento ◽  
João Gustavo Claudino ◽  
Adriano Lima Alves ◽  
...  

This study investigated the differences in external and internal load during pre-season training sessions carried out with different SSGs and a friendly match in top-class professional football players. The study was conducted over a full pre-season. Participants were 9 male top-class professional football players (25 ± 5 years; 74 ± 8 kg; 177 ± 8 cm). The following variables were measured: training session duration (min), average heart rate (bpm), total distance (m), distance covered per minute (m/min), the total number of accelerations > 2.5 m/s2, number of accelerations > 2.5 m/s2 per minute, average distance of accelerations (m), the average value of acceleration (m/s2). One-way ANOVA was performed to analyze the variance of all evaluated variables. No differences were found in the average accelerations (m/s2) (0.128) among all the training formats. Moderate differences were found in number of accelerations > 2.5 m/s2 per minute (η2 = 0.396, moderate effect) and average distance of accelerations (η2 = 0.545). Strong differences were found in HR (η2 = 0.788, large effect), total distance (η2 = 0.797, strong effect), distance per minute (η2 = 0.775 strong effect), total number of accelerations > 2.5 m/s2 (η2 = 0.699 strong effect). Significant correlations were found just for the number of accelerations > 2.5 m/s2 and the number of accelerations > 2.5 m/s2 per minute with the 4v4, 8v8 and the FM (r = 0.828–0.890, r2 = 69% – 79%; p < 0.01). External and internal loads differ across different SSGs and a FM during the pre-season training sessions.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Stefan Schob ◽  
Richard Brill ◽  
Eberhard Siebert ◽  
Massimo Sponza ◽  
Marie-Sophie Schüngel ◽  
...  

Background: Treatment of cerebral aneurysms using hemodynamic implants such as endosaccular flow disruptors and endoluminal flow diverters has gained significant momentum during recent years. The intended target zone of those devices is the immediate interface between aneurysm and parent vessel. The therapeutic success is based on the reduction of aneurysmal perfusion and the subsequent formation of a neointima along the surface of the implant. However, a subset of aneurysms–off-centered bifurcation aneurysms involving the origin of efferent branches and aneurysms arising from peripheral segments of small cerebral vessels–oftentimes cannot be treated via coiling or implanting a hemodynamic implant at the neck level for technical reasons. In those cases, indirect flow diversion–a flow diverter deployed in the main artery proximal to the parent vessel of the aneurysm–can be a viable treatment strategy, but clinical evidence is lacking in this regard.Materials and Methods: Five neurovascular centers contributed to this retrospective analysis of patients who were treated with indirect flow diversion. Clinical data, aneurysm characteristics, anti-platelet medication, and follow-up results, including procedural and post-procedural complications, were recorded.Results: Seventeen patients (mean age: 60.5 years, range: 35–77 years) with 17 target aneurysms (vertebrobasilar: n = 9) were treated with indirect flow diversion. The average distance between the flow-diverting stent and the aneurysm was 1.65 mm (range: 0.4–2.4 mm). In 15/17 patients (88.2%), perfusion of the aneurysm was reduced immediately after implantation. Follow-ups were available for 12 cases. Delayed opacification (OKM A3: 11.8%), reduction in size (OKM B1-3: 29.4%) and occlusion (D1: 47.1%) were observable at the latest investigation. Clinically relevant procedural complications and adverse events in the early phase and in the late subacute phase were not observed in any case.Conclusion: Our preliminary data suggest that indirect flow diversion is a safe, feasible, and effective approach to off-centered bifurcation aneurysms and distant small-vessel aneurysms. However, validation with larger studies, including long-term outcomes and optimized imaging, is warranted.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Duc-Anh Nguyen ◽  
Kha Do Minh ◽  
Khoi Nguyen Le ◽  
Minh Nguyen Le ◽  
Pham Ngoc Hung

Abstract This paper proposes a method to mitigate two major issues of Adversarial Transformation Networks (ATN) including the low diversity and the low quality of adversarial examples. In order to deal with the first issue, this research proposes a stacked convolutional autoencoder based on pattern to generalize ATN. This proposed autoencoder could support different patterns such as all-feature pattern , border feature pattern , and class model map pattern . In order to deal with the second issue, this paper presents an algorithm to improve the quality of adversarial examples in terms of L 0 -norm and L 2 -norm. This algorithm employs an adversarial feature ranking heuristics such as JSMA and COI to prioritize adversarial features. To demonstrate the advantages of the proposed method, comprehensive experiments have been conducted on the MNIST dataset and the CIFAR-10 dataset. For the first issue, the proposed autoencoder can generate diverse adversarial examples with the average success rate above 99%. For the second issue, the proposed algorithm could not only improve the quality of adversarial examples significantly but also maintain the average success rate. In terms of L 0 -norm, the proposed algorithm could decrease from hundreds of adversarial features to one adversarial feature. In terms of L 2 -norm, the proposed algorithm could reduce the average distance considerably. These results show that the proposed method is capable of generating high-quality and diverse adversarial examples in practice.


2022 ◽  
Vol 955 (1) ◽  
pp. 012026
Author(s):  
K Oktari ◽  
B Haryadi ◽  
B Riyanto

Abstract The movement of students requires means of a comfortable preferred mode of transportation with a high level of satisfaction. The aim of this research is to identify the characteristics of student trips in the city of Semarang, and to find out the factors for the transfer of motorcycleuse to the Trans Semarang BRT, and to determine steps to improve the choice of transportation modes for the Trans Semarang BRT. The study population was students of Universitas Diponegoro, Universitas Negeri Semarang and Universitas Islam Negeri Walisongo. The sample was taken using a quota sampling technique, and the data was collected using a questionnaire. The results showed that the average trip frequency was one time per day, the average distance traveled was 5-6 km. Travel time is 20-29 minutes for motorcycleusers and 30-39 minutes for BRT Trans Semarang users. On the reason for choosing the mode there is a difference where students choose the motorcycle mode due to speed and practical factor, while students choose the BRT Trans Semarang mode because it is cheap. The dominant factor affecting the transfer of motorcycle to the Trans Semarang BRT towards the campus of students in the city of Semarang is that if on the way from the bus stop to the final destination there is no need to change transportation, there is a Passenger Information System at each stop, and a maximum waiting time of 5 minutes. Increasing the travel time is a step to improve the choice of transportation mode for the Trans Semarang BRT.


2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (2) ◽  
pp. 68-78
Author(s):  
عباس فاضل محمود ◽  

This paper is dealing with an experimental study to show the influence of the geometric characteristics of the vortex generators VG son the thickness of the boundary layer (∂) and drag coefficients (CD) of the flat plate. Vortex generators work effectively on medium and high angles of attack, since they are "hidden" under the boundary layer and practically ineffective at low angles. The height of VGs relative to the thickness of the boundary layer enables us to study the efficacy of VGs in delaying boundary layer separation. The distance between two VGs also has an effect on the boundary layer if we take into account the interference between two pairs of VGs. The effect of the changing in (h- the height of vortex generator, d- the average distance between tow vortex generators) on the thickness of the flat plate boundary layer and the drag coefficients has been studied for triangular vortex generator. The measurements of the vortex generator have been changed to determine the optimum boundary layer thickness and the change in drag coefficients. An experiment was done at an average free stream velocity, (U∞,) of 28 m/s. The experiment was conducted in the wind tunnel UTAD-2 University (NAU) Kiev, Ukraine.


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