Communication Styles
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2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (3) ◽  
Hashim Fauzy Yaacob ◽  
Zaidatul Nadiah Abu Yazid

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the doctors-patients communication style and their information seeking practiced among doctors under training or junior doctors in Malaysian hospital. Two types of communication styles evaluated are doctor centered and patient centered communication. Meanwhile, elements of information seeking practice evaluated are exploration of the reason for encounter, history taking, concrete solutions, structuring the interview, interpersonal skills and communicative skills. These six elements were categorized into interview skills and process skills. This information seeking skills have been derived from meta-analysis conducted by Stewart and Roter (1989). We combined the doctors-patients communication style and information seeking practice to develop a model based on four quadrants namely doctors-interview, doctors-process, patient-interview and patient-process. The subjects for this research are doctors under training or junior doctors in Malaysia. This explorative research distributed a set of questionnaires in order to collect data for analysis. The result show that the doctors under training or junior doctors tend to practice doctor-centered styles compare to patient-centered. Meanwhile, most of them demonstrate all the information seeking practice at a high level. Based on four quadrants developed by researcher, research shows that the doctors mostly categorized in doctor-centered communication style and interview information-seeking skills. We suggested that doctors should be more patient-oriented rather than doctor oriented. We also suggested the model that we developed can be used as a model of communication pattern of the doctors and can be used for future research.

2021 ◽  
Emily J. Jones ◽  
Mark E. Feinberg ◽  
Jennifer Graham-Engeland ◽  
Damon E. Jones ◽  
Hannah Schreier

The transition to parenthood is a common yet stressful experience faced by many young and midlife adults when the risk of many chronic diseases also begins to rise. Consequently, the transition to parenthood represents an opportune time to intervene with adults to support their psychological and their physiological health and well-being. Here, we examine whether psychosocial benefits of the Family Foundations (FF) program, a perinatal coparenting intervention, extend to levels of systemic inflammation and self-rated health among parents. Results presented here are from a follow-up visit with 292 parents (155 mothers, 137 fathers) who, eight years prior, were either randomly assigned to the 9-session FF program (n=168) or the control condition (n=124). At follow-up, dried blood spots were collected to measure levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and parents further reported on their overall self-rated health. Participation in FF eight years prior was associated with lower levels of IL-6 (B=-.254, p=.038) and better self-reported health (B= -.222, p=.015) specifically among parents who were observed to have more negative communication styles prior to participation in the program. There was also a marginal effect of the FF intervention on mothers’ but not fathers’ CRP levels (B=-.378, p=.055). These findings support the notion that coparenting interventions, such as FF, could be leveraged to not only support parents’ psychological well-being but also benefit their longer-term physical health, especially among mothers and expecting couples who have more negative communication styles.

2021 ◽  
Vol 20 (2) ◽  
pp. 134-153
Darlene Fisher

Research into what is effective leadership in different cultures provides guidance for leaders moving from one culture to another (House et al, 2014). There is a paucity of empirical research into how culture impacts effective educational leadership in culturally diverse communities, which provides the direction and focus for this study. The cultural backgrounds of staff can impact what they expect about i) how leaders communicate, ii) what actions help build trust and collaboration and iii) how decisions can or should be made (Hofstede, 1991; Meyer, 2014). This study analyses the extent to which school leaders adapt their behaviours in response to the cultures of their staff. Findings suggest that leaders in schools do adapt their actions, most often using different communication styles but also methods of building collaboration and trust, and decision-making structures. Culture impacts what are effective leadership practices (Dorfman et al, 2012) and educational leaders need to understand these potential impacts if they work in culturally diverse communities. This is important to consider for school leaders and leadership preparation programmes.

2021 ◽  
Peivand Bastani ◽  
Fatemeh Niknam ◽  
Mahboobeh Rezazadeh ◽  
Giampiero Rossi Fedele ◽  
Sisira Edirippulige ◽  

Abstract Background: Analyzing the online medical questions and answer can be considered as a valuable tool for better comprehending mutual contractions between the patients and the caregivers in an online environment. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the content of questions and answers posted on dentistry websites.Methods: A mixed-method study was conducted in 2020. A total of 1182 related questions and answers were included. The data was analyzed quantitatively according to the classification of the questions, main complaints of the subjects and length of the questions and answers using Excel2013. A qualitative content analysis was carried out also for data robustness and triangulation. Results: Of the 1354 questions, 866 of them were categorized into 38 categories according to the main sub-classes of the International Classification of Diseases to Dentistry and Stomatology. Furthermore, the inquiries were allocated to 3 communication styles to present the users` main complaints that included contextual (52.33%), emotional (6.79%) and focal (40.89%) strategies. Results of the qualitative content analysis have led to 6 main themes: seeking the related recommendations of any actions, treatment seeking, information seeking, seeking for causes and reasons, seeking for oral and dental health recommendations and seeking for the dentists’ diagnosis or comments.Conclusions: The present study can be used for designing specific customized websites of dentistry and help the website managers for better optimization of the websites. All these interventions can pave the way for developing teleconsulting in dentistry for middle-income countries.

2021 ◽  
pp. 002383092110108
Gitte Henssel Joergensen ◽  
Pavitra Rao Makarla ◽  
Matthew Fammartino ◽  
Lauren Benson ◽  
Kathrin Rothermich

Nonliteral language represents a complex form of communication that can be interpreted in numerous different ways. Our study explored how individual differences in personality and communication styles affect the evaluation of literal and nonliteral language in the context of assumptions made by the Tinge Hypothesis (Dews & Winner, 1995). Participants watched videos of social interactions focusing on positive, negative, sarcastic, and jocular statements. They evaluated speaker intentions and social impressions and completed several personality and communication style questionnaires. Individual differences in empathy, defense style, and sarcasm use correlated with the accuracy of identifying speaker intent. Additionally, positive statements were rated as friendlier when compared to jocular statements, thereby supporting the Tinge Hypothesis. However, literal negative statements were rated as more friendly than sarcastic statements, which is inconsistent with the Tinge Hypothesis. The current results provide novel evidence for the Tinge Hypothesis using multimodal, dynamic stimuli and highlight the role of the individual personality of the recipient in evaluating sarcasm and jocularity.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (3) ◽  
pp. 97-114
Reem Alkurdi ◽  
Sharif Alghazo

This study aims to investigate English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers’ misbehaviours in class and their students’ reactions to these misbehaviours. Towards this end, 60 classroom observations of six English language teachers (N=10 each) were conducted at a public school in Jordan. Moreover, a survey was used to elicit 201 students’ reactions to their teachers’ misbehaviours by gauging their satisfaction with the teachers’ communication styles. Finally, the teacher participants were interviewed in order to more deeply understand why such misbehaviours occurred. Analysis of the data is grounded in the Expectancy Violation Theory. The results revealed that when the mean value of teachers’ communication style was more than 3 on a 5-point Likert Scale, the students often perceived their teachers as being positive, and the students compensated most of their teachers’ misbehaviours. However, when the mean value was below 3, the teachers were perceived as being negative, and the students reciprocated for most of the misbehaviours. The results also showed that the students are more tolerant towards their teachers’ misbehaviours as long as the teacher is perceived to be positive. The study provides insights into understanding the student-teacher relationship in EFL classes.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (6) ◽  
pp. e0251936
María del Mar Molero Jurado ◽  
Iván Herrera-Peco ◽  
María del Carmen Pérez-Fuentes ◽  
Nieves Fátima Oropesa Ruiz ◽  
África Martos Martínez ◽  

Background Healthcare professionals may have certain psychological characteristics which contribute to increasing the quality of their professional performance. Objective Study the effect that humanization of care and communication have on the burnout syndrome in nursing personal. Methods The sample included a total of 330 Spanish nurses. Analytical instruments used were the Health Professional’s Humanization Scale (HUMAS), Communication Styles Inventory Revised (CSI-R) and Brief Burnout Questionnaire Revised (CBB-R). Results Two broad nursing profiles could be differentiated by their level of humanization (those with scores over the mean and those with scores below it in optimistic disposition, openness to sociability, emotional understanding, self-efficacy, and affection), where the largest group had the high scores. A communication repertoire based on verbal aggressiveness impacted indirectly on the effect of humanization on burnout, mainly in the personal impact component. We observed the relation of humanization profiles in nursing staff with the job dissatisfaction and burnout components. Besides that, some communication styles, verbal aggressiveness and questioningness, have an indirect effect on the relationship between humanization profiles and job dissatisfaction. Conclusions The results on the relationship between communication styles and burnout, and the mediator effect of communication styles on the relationship between humanization of care and burnout in nursing personnel are discussed.

Journalism ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 146488492110231
Xinzhi Zhang ◽  
Rui Zhu

Social media has become a channel through which journalists distribute their work, reach audiences and gain visibility. Informed by the frameworks of journalistic branding, the heuristic-systematic model, and hypertextual elements, the present study examines the extent to which the source factor (journalists’ branding on social media profiles) and message factors (communication styles and hypertextual elements) influence visibility (i.e. the popularity of the account and the number of favourites and retweets of the posts). We analysed the Twitter profiles of 98 health journalists from seven major media organizations in the US and conducted a manual content analysis of a representative sample of their public tweets (n = 3982) published during the Covid-19 pandemic. In contrast to expectations, branding contributed little to any indicators of visibility, and profiles with institutional branding had fewer followers. Both affective messages and rational messages received more likes and retweets than messages without these elements. Tweets containing images or news-related hyperlinks received more retweets, whereas the number of @mentions in a tweet was negatively related to visibility. Journalists from traditional media, those who tweeted more often, and those with more followers had higher levels of visibility.

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