microbiome composition
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2022 ◽  
Vol 56 ◽  
pp. 101137
Carmen Romeralo ◽  
Jorge Martín-García ◽  
Pablo Martínez-Álvarez ◽  
E. Jordán Muñoz-Adalia ◽  
Danilo Reis Gonçalves ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 170 ◽  
pp. 104296
Wenjing Li ◽  
Yan Li ◽  
Jie Lv ◽  
Xuemin He ◽  
Jinlong Wang ◽  

Giuseppe Privitera ◽  
Nitish Rana ◽  
Franco Scaldaferri ◽  
Alessandro Armuzzi ◽  
Theresa T. Pizarro

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most prevalent and deadly forms of cancer in Western countries. Inflammation is a well-known driver of colonic carcinogenesis; however, its role in CRC extends beyond colitis-associated cancer. Over the last decades, numerous associations between intestinal dysbiosis and CRC have been identified, with more recent studies providing mechanistic evidence of a causative relationship. Nonetheless, much remains to be discovered regarding the precise implications of microbiome alterations in the pathogenesis of CRC. Research confirms the importance of a bidirectional crosstalk between the gut microbiome and the mucosal immune system in which inflammasomes, multiprotein complexes that can sense “danger signals,” serve as conduits by detecting microbial signals and activating innate immune responses, including the induction of microbicidal activities that can alter microbiome composition. Current evidence strongly supports an active role for this “inflammasome–microbiome axis” in the initiation and development of CRC. Furthermore, the gasdermin (GSDM) family of proteins, which are downstream effectors of the inflammasome that are primarily known for their role in pyroptosis, have been recently linked to CRC pathogenesis. These findings, however, do not come without controversy, as pyroptosis is reported to exert both anti- and protumorigenic functions. Furthermore, the multi-faceted interactions between GSDMs and the gut microbiome, as well as their importance in CRC, have only been superficially investigated. In this review, we summarize the existing literature supporting the importance of the inflammasome–microbiota axis, as well as the activation and function of GSDMs, to gain a better mechanistic understanding of CRC pathogenesis.

2022 ◽  
Zhongzhi Sun ◽  
Wenju Wang ◽  
Leyuan Li ◽  
Xu Zhang ◽  
Zhibin Ning ◽  

The gut microbiome composition and function are associated with health and diseases. Sweeten-ers are widely used food additives, although many studies using animal models have linked sweetener consumption to gut microbial changes and health issues. Whether sweeteners directly change the human gut microbiome functionality remains largely unknown. In this study, we sys-tematically investigated the responses of five human gut microbiomes to 21 common sweeteners, using an approach combining high-throughput ex vivo microbiome culturing and metaproteomics to quantify functional changes in different taxa. Hierarchical clustering based on metaproteomic responses of individual microbiomes resulted in two clusters. The first cluster was composed of non-caloric artificial sweeteners (NAS) and two sugar alcohols with shorter carbon backbones (4-5 carbon atoms), and the second cluster was composed of sugar alcohols with longer carbon backbones. The metaproteomic functional responses of the second cluster were similar to the prebiotic fructooligosaccharides and kestose, indicating that these sugar alcohol-type sweeteners have potential prebiotic functions. This study provides a comprehensive evaluation of the direct effects of commonly used sweeteners on the functions of the human gut microbiome using a func-tional metaproteomics approach, improving our understanding of the roles of sweeteners on mi-crobiome-associated human health and disease issues.

Children ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 112
Tjaša Hertiš Petek ◽  
Maya Petek ◽  
Tadej Petek ◽  
Nataša Marčun Varda

Diaper dermatitis is a common type of irritant contact dermatitis occurring in infants and toddlers. Its occurrence is triggered by an unfavorable environment under the diaper, damage to skin integrity by fecal enzyme degradation, overhydration and disruption of the lipid bilayer structure facilitating the entry of irritants and microorganisms. In diaper dermatitis development, the central proinflammatory cytokines are IL-1α, IL-8 and TNF-α. The initial release of IL-1α and TNF-α starts a further cascade of pro-inflammatory chemo- and cytokines, resulting in inflammation and erythema of the skin. A recently recognized factor in diaper dermatitis is the composition of the skin microbiome; common pathogenic strains Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus are associated with skin irritation. The resulting impaired microbiome composition produces a local inflammatory response and may thus worsen the initial dermatitis clinical presentation and subsequent healing. Introduction of probiotics is an attractive treatment for microbiome modulation, which has shown success in other skin conditions in adults and children. Probiotics are thought to work as a protective shield against irritants, maintain low skin pH, secrete beneficial metabolites, and block pathogen invasion. There is preliminary evidence that certain probiotics given orally or topically could be used as a gentle intervention in diaper dermatitis.

Fermentation ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 33
Yanfeng Liu ◽  
Bing Wan ◽  
Fan Yang ◽  
Xiaolong Zhang ◽  
Jianghua Li ◽  

Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus panis are ethanol and lactic acid producers in Maotai-flavor Baijiu fermentation. Understanding their interaction is important to regulate the microbiome composition during fermentation and biosynthesis of ethanol and lactic acid. This study is the first to analyze the interaction between S. cerevisiae and L. panis at different growth phases during co-cultivation. Results showed that the different growth phases of S. cerevisiae modulated L. panis growth. Metabolomics analysis showed that amino acids and nucleoside secreted by S. cerevisiae promote L. panis growth, while ethanol inhibited L. panis growth. Furthermore, S. cerevisiae modulated L. panis cell growth under varying sugar concentrations. Simulated solid-state fermentation demonstrated that regulating the sugar concentration or the ratio of S. cerevisiae to L. panis could inhibit L. panis cell growth and reduce lactic acid accumulation. This study provided an understanding on Maotai-flavor Baijiu microbiome, which might be useful for metabolite regulation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Gianluca Scuderi ◽  
Emidio Troiani ◽  
Angelo Maria Minnella

The term microbiome means not only a complex ecosystem of microbial species that colonize our body but also their genome and the surrounding environment in which they live. Recent studies support the existence of a gut-retina axis involved in the pathogenesis of several chronic progressive ocular diseases, including age-related macular disorders. This review aims to underline the importance of the gut microbiome in relation to ocular health. After briefly introducing the characteristics of the gut microbiome in terms of composition and functions, the role of gut microbiome dysbiosis, in the development or progression of retinal diseases, is highlighted, focusing on the relationship between gut microbiome composition and retinal health based on the recently investigated gut-retina axis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Kasun H. Bodawatta ◽  
Irena Klečková ◽  
Jan Klečka ◽  
Kateřina Pužejová ◽  
Bonny Koane ◽  

AbstractThe composition of gut bacterial communities is strongly influenced by the host diet in many animal taxa. For birds, the effect of diet on the microbiomes has been documented through diet manipulation studies. However, for wild birds, most studies have drawn on literature-based information to decipher the dietary effects, thereby, overlooking individual variation in dietary intake. Here we examine how naturally consumed diets influence the composition of the crop and cloacal microbiomes of twenty-one tropical bird species, using visual and metabarcoding-based identification of consumed diets and bacterial 16S rRNA microbiome sequencing. We show that diet intakes vary markedly between individuals of the same species and that literature-based dietary guilds grossly underestimate intraspecific diet variability. Furthermore, despite an effect of literature-based dietary guild assignment of host taxa, the composition of natural diets does not align with crop and cloacal microbiome similarity. However, host-taxon specific gut bacterial lineages are positively correlated with specific diet items, indicating that certain microbes associate with different diet components in specific avian hosts. Consequently, microbiome composition is not congruent with the overall consumed diet composition of species, but specific components of a consumed diet lead to host-specific effects on gut bacterial taxa.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Yulduzkhon Abdullaeva ◽  
Stefan Ratering ◽  
Binoy Ambika Manirajan ◽  
David Rosado-Porto ◽  
Sylvia Schnell ◽  

The seed-transmitted microorganisms and the microbiome of the soil in which the plant grows are major drivers of the rhizosphere microbiome, a crucial component of the plant holobiont. The seed-borne microbiome can be even coevolved with the host plant as a result of adaptation and vertical transmission over generations. The reduced genome diversity and crossing events during domestication might have influenced plant traits that are important for root colonization by seed-borne microbes and also rhizosphere recruitment of microbes from the bulk soil. However, the impact of the breeding on seed-transmitted microbiome composition and the plant ability of microbiome selection from the soil remain unknown. Here, we analyzed both endorhiza and rhizosphere microbiome of two couples of genetically related wild and cultivated wheat species (Aegilops tauschii/Triticum aestivum and T. dicoccoides/T. durum) grown in three locations, using 16S rRNA gene and ITS2 metabarcoding, to assess the relative contribution of seed-borne and soil-derived microbes to the assemblage of the rhizosphere microbiome. We found that more bacterial and fungal ASVs are transmitted from seed to the endosphere of all species compared with the rhizosphere, and these transmitted ASVs were species-specific regardless of location. Only in one location, more microbial seed transmission occurred also in the rhizosphere of A. tauschii compared with other species. Concerning soil-derived microbiome, the most distinct microbial genera occurred in the rhizosphere of A. tauschii compared with other species in all locations. The rhizosphere of genetically connected wheat species was enriched with similar taxa, differently between locations. Our results demonstrate that host plant criteria for soil bank’s and seed-originated microbiome recruitment depend on both plants’ genotype and availability of microorganisms in a particular environment. This study also provides indications of coevolution between the host plant and its associated microbiome resulting from the vertical transmission of seed-originated taxa.

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