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2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 100458
Scott P. Campbell ◽  
Christopher J. Kim ◽  
Armand Allkanjari ◽  
Brent Nose ◽  
J. Patrick Selph ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Hao Li ◽  
Genbo Peng

CO2 foam fracturing fluid is widely used in unconventional oil and gas production because of its easy flowback and low damage to the reservoir. Nowadays, the fracturing process of CO2 foam fracturing fluid injected by coiled tubing is widely used. However, the small diameter of coiled tubing will cause a large frictional pressure loss in the process of fluid flow, which is not beneficial to the development of fracturing construction. In this paper, the temperature and pressure calculation model of gas, liquid, and solid three-phase fluid flow in the wellbore under annulus injection is established. The model accuracy is verified by comparing the calculation results with the existing gas, solid, and gas and liquid two-phase model of CO2 fracturing. The calculation case of this paper shows that compared with the tubing injection method, the annulus injection of CO2 foam fracturing fluid reduces the friction by 3.06 MPa, and increases the wellbore pressure and temperature by 3.06 MPa and 5.77°C, respectively. Increasing the injection temperature, proppant volumetric concentration, and foam quality will increase the wellbore fluid temperature and make the CO2 transition to the supercritical state while increasing the mass flow rate will do the opposite. The research results verify the feasibility of the annulus injection of CO2 foam fracturing fluid and provide a reference for the improvement of CO2 foam fracturing technology in the field.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 748
Seong Jin Lim ◽  
Young Lae Kim ◽  
Sungjong Cho ◽  
Ik Keun Park

Pipes of various shapes constitute pipelines utilized in industrial sites. These pipes are coupled through welding, wherein complex curvatures such as a flange, an elbow, a reducer, and a branch pipe are often found. Using phased array ultrasonic testing (PAUT) to inspect weld zones with complex curvatures is faced with different challenges due to parts that are difficult to contact with probes, small-diameter pipes, spatial limitations due to adjacent pipes, nozzles, and sloped shapes. In this study, we developed a flexible PAUT probe (FPAPr) and a semi-automatic scanner that was improved to enable stable FPAPr scanning for securing its inspection data consistency and reproducibility. A mock-up test specimen was created for a flange, an elbow, a reducer, and a branch pipe. Artificial flaws were inserted into the specimen through notch and hole processing, and simulations and verification experiments were performed to verify the performance and field applicability of the FPAPr and semi-automatic scanner.

2022 ◽  
Naoto Sassa ◽  
Yoshitaka Kameya ◽  
Tomoichi Takahashi ◽  
Yoshihisa Matsukawa ◽  
Tsuyoshi Majima ◽  

Objectives: To elucidate if synthetic contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT) images created from plain CT images using deep neural networks (DNN) could be used for screening, clinical diagnosis, and postoperative follow up of small diameter renal tumors by comparing the concordance rate between real and synthetic CECT images and the diagnoses according to 10 urologists. Methods: This retrospective, multicenter study included 155 patients (artificial intelligence training cohort [n=99], validation cohort [n=56]) who underwent surgery for small-diameter (≤40 mm) renal tumors, with the pathological diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma, during 2010 to 2020. Preoperatively, dynamic plain CT and CECT images were obtained. We created a learned DNN using pix2pix. We examined the quality of the synthetic CECT images created using this DNN and compared them with real CECT images using the zero mean normalized cross correlation parameter. We assessed concordance rates between real and synthetic images and diagnoses according to 10 urologists by creating a receiver operating characteristic curve and calculating the area under the curve (AUC). Results: The synthetic CECT images were highly concordant with the real CECT images, regardless of the existence or morphology of the renal tumor. Regarding the concordance rate, a greater AUC was obtained with synthetic CECT (AUC=0.892) than with only CT (AUC=0.720; p<0.001). Conclusions: This study is the first to use DNN to create a high-quality synthetic CECT image that was highly concordant with a real CECT image. Synthetic CECT images could be used for urological diagnoses and clinical screening.

Amanda R. Pereira ◽  
Marina Corral‐Forteza ◽  
Helena Collgros ◽  
Mary‐Ann El Sharouni ◽  
Peter M. Ferguson ◽  

Elena G. Shmakova ◽  
Olga A. Filoretova ◽  
Olga M. Nikolaeva ◽  
Denis P. Vasilkin

The article describes an experimental model of stabilization of a mechanized system. The following are shown: a skate; an element of the program code; an algorithm for stabilizing a proportional-integral-differential controller (PID). The experimental model uses the calculation and adjustment of the regulator according to the Ziegler-Nichols method. For the case of applying the neural network approach to the search for equilibrium, the Hopfield neural network is used. The technology of calculating the balancing of the values of the coefficients: proportional, integral, differential components are described. The design of the rolling system is described. The experimental model is designed to identify the balancing range of the rolling system of small-diameter balls. The experimental module balances the ball at a distance of 4.5 to 7 cm (SW-range). The shortcomings of the experimental model of stabilization of the mechanized system are revealed. The analysis of experimental studies of spacecraft stabilization is carried out. It is determined that it is advisable to use the mathematical tools of the sixth-order Butterworth polynomial in the training of a neural network. Complex neural network calculations make it possible to calculate the stabilization coefficients of the spacecraft when the coordinate system does not coincide with the axes of inertia. An overview of the authors ' research on the use of intelligent quality control systems for the production of medicines is given. An overview of neural network solutions for stabilizing the turning angle of high-speed cars is given. The expediency of selecting the stabilization coefficients of a proportional-integral-differential regulator by a trained neural network for various rolling ranges is proved.

Stroke ◽  
2022 ◽  
Caron Rockman ◽  
Valeria Caso ◽  
Peter A. Schneider

The goal of the current review is to examine the hazards and benefits of carotid interventions in women and to provide recommendations for the indications for carotid intervention in female patients. Stroke and cerebrovascular disease are prevalent in women. There are inherent biological and other differences in men and women, which affect the manifestations and outcome of stroke, with women experiencing worse disability and higher mortality following ischemic stroke than men. Due to the underrepresentation of female patients in most clinical trials, the ability to make firm but alternative recommendations for women specifically on the management of carotid stenosis is challenging. Although some data suggest that women might have worse periprocedural outcomes as compared to men following all carotid revascularization procedures, there is also an abundance of data to support a similar risk for carotid procedures in men and women, especially with carotid endarterectomy and transcarotid artery revascularization. Therefore, the indications for carotid revascularization are the same in women as they are in men. The choice of a carotid revascularization procedure in women is based upon the same factors as in men and requires careful evaluation of a particular patient’s risk profile, anatomic criteria, plaque morphology, and medical comorbidities that might favor one technique over the other. When performing carotid revascularization procedures in women, tailored techniques and procedures to address the small diameter of the female artery are warranted.

2022 ◽  
K. A Sreejith ◽  
M. S Sanil ◽  
T. S Prasad ◽  
M. P Prejith ◽  
V. B Sreekumar ◽  

Tropical forests have long been accepted for their productivity and ecosystem services on account of their high diversity and stand structural attributes. In spite of their significance, tropical forests, and especially those of Asia, remain understudied. Until recently, most forest inventories in Asia have concentrated on trees 10 cm in diameter. Floristic composition, plant species diversity, above-ground biomass, basal area, and diversity were investigated across different life forms and two-diameter classes in a large-scale 10-ha plot, in the undisturbed tropical seasonal rain forest of Southern Western Ghats, Kerala, India. The regeneration pattern of the study area was examined by evaluating fisher's alpha and IVI (Important Value Index) across three layers of vegetation (seedling, sapling, and tree). Within the plot, we recorded 25,390 woody plant species ≥1 cm dbh from 45 families, 91 genera, and 106 species. Plant density was 2539 woody individuals per hectare, with a basal area of 47.72 m2/ha and above-ground biomass of 421.77 Mg/ha. By basal area, density, and frequency, the Rubiaceae, Sapotaceae, and Malvaceae families were the most important. Small-diameter trees (1 cm ≤ dbh ≤10 cm) were found to be 78 percent of the total tree population, 20.2 percent of the basal area, and 1.4 percent of the aboveground biomass. They also possessed 6 percent more diversity at the family level, 10% more diversity at the genus level, and 12% more diversity at the species level than woody individuals under 10 cm dbh. Woody individuals of treelets life form and small-diameter classes were much more diverse and dense than the other groups, indicating that results based only on larger canopy trees and larger diameter class maybe not be an appropriate representation of the diversity status of a particular tropical forest type. The lower density of individuals in the initial girth class indicates the vulnerability of the forest system to anthropogenic, natural disturbance and a changing climate. Reduce the minimum diameter limit down to 1 cm, in contrast to 10 cm limit used in most of the evergreen forest inventories, revealed a high density and diversity in the lower stories.

Ryuji Higashita ◽  
Yasuhide Nakayama ◽  
Yasuyuki Shiraishi ◽  
Ryosuke Iwai ◽  
Yusuke Inoue ◽  

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