men and women
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Edoardo Manarini

The first part of the book is dedicated to the prosopographic reconstruction of the kinship group, and to the political context and relationships in which the members, both men and women, operated from the second half of the ninth century to the beginning of the twelfth. The first chapter examines the first century of the Hucpoldings in Italy. Fundamentally, it suggests that the criteria for the inclusion into the ranks of Carolingian elite in the Italian kingdom were a relationship with the royal power and the attainment of public offices in different areas of the kingdom, such as in the palace of the capital Pavia, eastern Emilia, the duchy of Spoleto or the marchese of Tuscany.

2022 ◽  
pp. 089976402110574
Pamala Wiepking ◽  
Christopher J. Einolf ◽  
Yongzheng Yang

There has been a steady increase in research studying the role of gender in prosocial behavior, such as charitable giving and volunteering. We provide an extensive review of the interdisciplinary literature and derive hypotheses about three different pathways that lead men and women to differ in their display of giving and volunteering: pathways through social capital, motivations, and resources. We test these hypotheses across 19 countries by analyzing 28,410 individuals, using generalized structural equation models. Our results support previous research, conducted in single countries, that there are distinct different pathways that lead men and women to engage in giving and volunteering: Women report stronger motivations to help others, but men report more of the financial resources that make giving and volunteering possible. The gendered pathways to giving and volunteering that lead through social capital, educational achievement, and financial security vary by country.

2022 ◽  
Brinkley M. Sharpe ◽  
Courtland Hyatt ◽  
Donald Lynam ◽  
Josh Miller

Insults convey information about the speaker’s perception of the target’s personality. Previous research has found that several commonly used insults (“asshole,” “dick,” “bitch”) are uniformly associated with self- and other-reported antagonism (or low Agreeableness). We aimed to replicate and extend these findings by focusing on the insult “asshole,” a common insult used to refer to both men and women. In the present study, participants (n = 397) described the “biggest assholes” in their lives using a measure of the Five-Factor Model of personality. “Assholes” described by participants were typically middle-aged, predominantly male, and included romantic partners, coworkers, bosses, family members, and friends. Results showed that “assholes” were perceived to be characterized by interpersonally relevant traits (i.e., low Agreeableness, high Anger). The consensus Five Factor Model profile for target “assholes” was similar to expert profiles of psychopathic, antisocial, and narcissistic personality disorders. Exploratory analyses conducted on open-ended descriptions of nominated bothersome “asshole-related” behaviors revealed common themes including manipulation, aggression, irresponsibility, and entitlement.

Suzanne E. Gilbey ◽  
Christopher M. Reid ◽  
Rachel R. Huxley ◽  
Mario J. Soares ◽  
Yun Zhao ◽  

It is well reported that individuals spend up to 90% of their daily time indoors, with between 60% to 90% of this time being spent in the home. Using a cross-sectional study design in a population of 111 healthy adults (mean age: 52.3 ± 9.9 years; 65% women), we investigated the association between exposure to total volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in indoor residential environments and measures of central arterial stiffness, known to be related to cardiovascular risk. Indoor VOC concentrations were measured along with ambulatory measures of pulse pressure (cPP), augmentation index (cAIx) and cAIx normalized for heart rate (cAIx75), over a continuous 24-h period. Pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) was determined during clinical assessment. Multiple regression analysis was performed to examine the relationship between measures of arterial stiffness and VOCs after adjusting for covariates. Higher 24-h, daytime and night-time cAIx was associated with an interquartile range increase in VOCs. Similar effects were shown with cAIx75. No significant effects were observed between exposure to VOCs and cPP or cfPWV. After stratifying for sex and age (≤50 years; >50 years), effect estimates were observed to be greater and significant for 24-h and daytime cAIx in men, when compared to women. No significant effect differences were seen between age groups with any measure of arterial stiffness. In this study, we demonstrated that residential indoor VOCs exposure was adversely associated with some measures of central arterial stiffness, and effects were different between men and women. Although mechanistic pathways remain unclear, these findings provide a possible link between domestic VOCs exposure and unfavourable impacts on individual-level cardiovascular disease risk.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Charlene L. Nicholls-Nixon ◽  
Mariah M. Maxheimer

PurposeEntrepreneurial support organizations, such as business incubators and accelerators (BIAs), provide coaching as a core element of their service offering for startups. Yet little is known about how coaching creates value from the entrepreneur's perspective. This is an important issue given that entrepreneurship is recognized as a gendered phenomenon. The purpose of this article is to explore how the coaching services provided during incubation create value for men and women entrepreneurs.Design/methodology/approachFocusing on university business incubators, our comparative qualitative study of 18 men and women entrepreneurs takes a grounded theorizing approach, and draws abductively on entrepreneurial learning theory, to explore the dimensions of coaching services that support venture development and explain gender differences.FindingsThe emergent explanatory model suggests that venture development is supported by coaching service design (at the incubator level) and by coaching content and rapport (at the entrepreneur-coach dyad level). Gender differences were observed in the emphasis placed on accessibility of coaching services provided by the incubator and the guidance provided by the coaches. We theorize that these findings reflect differences in entrepreneurial learning.Practical implicationsTo better support entrepreneurial learning, gender differences should be considered in both the design and delivery of coaching services.Originality/valueOur findings provide deeper insight about how coaching services create value for entrepreneurs by revealing explanatory dimensions at two levels of analysis and theorizing the interrelationship between entrepreneurial learning, gender and venture development.

Andrew M Alexander ◽  
Shane M Hammer ◽  
Kaylin D Didier ◽  
Lillie M Huckaby ◽  
Thomas J. Barstow

Maximal voluntary contraction force (MVC), potentiated twitch force (Qpot), and voluntary activation (%VA) recover to baseline within 90s following extreme-intensity exercise. However, methodological limitations masked important recovery kinetics. We hypothesized reductions in MVC, Qpot, and %VA at task failure following extreme-intensity exercise would be less than following severe-intensity exercise, and Qpot and MVC following extreme-intensity exercise would show significant recovery within 120s but remain depressed following severe-intensity exercise. Twelve subjects (6 men) completed two severe-intensity (40, 50%MVC) and two extreme-intensity (70, 80%MVC) isometric knee-extension exercise bouts to task failure (Tlim). Neuromuscular function was measured at baseline, Tlim, and through 150s of recovery. Each intensity significantly reduced MVC and Qpot compared to baseline. MVC was greater at T¬lim (p<0.01) and at 150s of recovery (p=0.004) following exercise at 80%MVC compared to severe-intensity exercise. Partial recovery of MVC and Qpot were detected within 150s following Tlim for each exercise intensity; Qpot recovered to baseline values within 150s of recovery following exercise at 80%MVC. No differences in %VA were detected pre- to post-exercise or across recovery for any intensity. Although further analysis showed sex-specific differences in MVC and Qpot, future studies should closely examine sex-dependent responses to extreme-intensity exercise. It is clear, however, that these data reinforce that mechanisms limiting exercise tolerance during extreme-intensity exercise recover quickly. NOVELTY: •Severe- and extreme-intensity exercise cause independent responses in fatigue accumulation and the subsequent recovery time courses. •Recovery of MVC and Qpot occurs much faster following extreme-intensity exercise in both men and women.

2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (6) ◽  
pp. 853-859
K. A. Zhbanov ◽  
A. A. Shchendrygina ◽  
E. A. Zheleznykh ◽  
E. V. Privalova ◽  
A. Y. Suvorov ◽  

Aim. To determine the median levels of neuregulin-1 (NRG-1; endothelium-derived growth factor and the natural agonist of the ERBB3 and ERBB4 receptors) NRG-1 in healthy volunteers and to study the associations of NRG-1 levels with gender and age.Material and Methods. Ninety seven healthy participants were enrolled (median age of 44 [32-54], men 45 men [46.4%]). The following age groups were identified: 20-29 y.о. (n=20, men – 50.0%),  30-39  y.о.  (n=21,  men  –  52.4%),  40-49  y.о.  (n=22,  men  –  45.5%),  50-59  y.о. (n=22, men – 36.4%); 60-69 y.о. (n=12, men – 50.0%). Peripheral blood samples were collected at the time of enrolment, standard laboratory tests were performed, and NRG-1 levels were determined in the plasma samples by ELISA.Results. In the cohort of 97 healthy participants the median value of NRG-1 was 0.3 [0.121-2.24] ng/ml. NRG-1 levels did not differ significantly between men and women (p=0.145), indicating that NRG-1 levels are not influenced by gender. The levels of NRG-1 were similar in the different age groups: age 20-29 years=0.26 [0.17-0.37] ng/ml; age 30-39=0.24 [0.1-0.39] ng/ml; age 40-49=0.31 [0.19-1.15] ng/ml; age 50-59=0.37  [0.19-1.0] ng/ml; age 60-69=0.4 [0.13-0.81] ng/ml. Correlation analysis between NRG-1 levels and route blood measurements (haemoglobin, lipids, glucose, creatinine, and uretic acid) did not show significant associations.Conclusions. In this study, the median value of NRG-1 plasma levels were determined. The results of the study show that age and gender had no influence on NRG-1 values.

Bess Dawson-Hughes ◽  
Jifan Wang ◽  
Kathryn Barger ◽  
Heike A Bischoff-Ferrari ◽  
Christopher T Sempos ◽  

Abstract Context Supplementation with vitamin D has the potential to both reduce and increase risk of falling, and parathyroid hormone (PTH) may contribute to fall risk. Objective To assess the associations of intra-trial mean circulating levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and PTH on incident falls in healthy older adults. Design Observational within a clinical trial. Setting The Bone Metabolism Laboratory at the USDA Nutrition Center at Tufts University. Participants 410 men and women age 65 years and older who participated in the 3-year Boston STOP IT trial to determine the effect of supplementation with 700 IU of vitamin D3 plus calcium on incident falls (secondary endpoint). Intra-trial exposures of 25(OH)D and PTH were calculated as the mean of biannual measures up to and including the first fall. Main outcome measures: incidence of first fall Results Intra-trial mean 25(OH)D was significantly associated with risk of falling in a U-shaped pattern; the range associated with minimal risk of falling was approximately 20-40 ng/ml. PTH was not significantly associated with risk of falling. Conclusions The findings highlight the importance of maintaining the circulating 25(OH)D level between 20 and 40 ng/ml, the range that is also recommended for bone health. At PTH levels within the normal range, there was no detectible independent association of PTH with fall risk.

Meccanica ◽  
2022 ◽  
Stefano Olivieri ◽  
Mattia Cavaiola ◽  
Andrea Mazzino ◽  
Marco E. Rosti

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