Men And Women
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2021 ◽  
Vol 13 ◽  
Sandra den Hoedt ◽  
Simone M. Crivelli ◽  
Frank P. J. Leijten ◽  
Mario Losen ◽  
Jo A. A. Stevens ◽  

Apolipoprotein ε4 (APOE)4 is a strong risk factor for the development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and aberrant sphingolipid levels have been implicated in AD. We tested the hypothesis that the APOE4 genotype affects brain sphingolipid levels in AD. Seven ceramides and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) were quantified by LC-MSMS in hippocampus, cortex, cerebellum, and plasma of <3 months and >5 months old human APOE3 and APOE4-targeted replacement mice with or without the familial AD (FAD) background of both sexes (145 animals). APOE4 mice had higher Cer(d18:1/24:0) levels in the cortex (1.7-fold, p = 0.002) than APOE3 mice. Mice with AD background showed higher levels of Cer(d18:1/24:1) in the cortex than mice without (1.4-fold, p = 0.003). S1P levels were higher in all three brain regions of older mice than of young mice (1.7-1.8-fold, all p ≤ 0.001). In female mice, S1P levels in hippocampus (r = −0.54 [−0.70, −0.35], p < 0.001) and in cortex correlated with those in plasma (r = −0.53 [−0.71, −0.32], p < 0.001). Ceramide levels were lower in the hippocampus (3.7–10.7-fold, all p < 0.001), but higher in the cortex (2.3–12.8-fold, p < 0.001) of female than male mice. In cerebellum and plasma, sex effects on individual ceramides depended on acyl chain length (9.5-fold lower to 11.5-fold higher, p ≤ 0.001). In conclusion, sex is a stronger determinant of brain ceramide levels in mice than APOE genotype, AD background, or age. Whether these differences impact AD neuropathology in men and women remains to be investigated.

2021 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Ahmad Jayedi ◽  
Nasim Janbozorgi ◽  
Kurosh Djafarian ◽  
Mir Saeed Yekaninejad ◽  
Sakineh Shab-Bidar

Abstract Background Gaussian graphical model (GGM) has been introduced as a new approach to identify patterns of dietary intake. We aimed to investigate the link between dietary networks derived through GGM and obesity in Iranian adults. Method A cross-sectional study was conducted on 850 men and women (age range: 20–59 years) who attended the local health centers in Tehran. Dietary intake was evaluated by using a validated food frequency questionnaire. GGM was applied to identify dietary networks. The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of general and abdominal adiposity across tertiles of dietary network scores were estimated using logistic regression analysis controlling for age, sex, physical activity, smoking status, marital status, education, energy intake and menopausal status. Results GGM identified three dietary networks, where 30 foods were grouped into six communities. The identified networks were healthy, unhealthy and saturated fats networks, wherein cooked vegetables, processed meat and butter were, respectively, central to the networks. Being in the top tertile of saturated fats network score was associated with a higher likelihood of central obesity by waist-to-hip ratio (OR: 1.56, 95%CI: 1.08, 2.25; P for trend: 0.01). There was also a marginally significant positive association between higher unhealthy network score and odds of central obesity by waist circumference (OR: 1.37, 95%CI: 0.94, 2.37; P for trend: 0.09). Healthy network was not associated with central adiposity. There was no association between dietary network scores and general obesity. Conclusions Unhealthy and saturated fat dietary networks were associated with abdominal adiposity in adults. GGM-derived dietary networks represent dietary patterns and can be used to investigate diet-disease associations.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Alain Boussuges ◽  
Sarah Rives ◽  
Julie Finance ◽  
Guillaume Chaumet ◽  
Nicolas Vallée ◽  

Background: Diagnosing diaphragm dysfunction in the absence of complete paralysis remains difficult. The aim of the present study was to assess the normal values of the thickness and the inspiratory thickening of both hemidiaphragms as measured by ultrasonography in healthy volunteers while in a seated position.Methods: Healthy volunteers with a normal pulmonary function test were recruited. The diaphragmatic thickness was measured on both sides at the zone of apposition of the diaphragm to the rib cage during quiet breathing at end-expiration, end-inspiration, and after maximal inspiration. The thickening ratio, the thickening fraction, and the thickness at end-inspiration divided by the thickness at deep breathing were determined. The mean values and the lower and upper limits of normal were determined for men and women.Results: 200 healthy volunteers (100 men and 100 women) were included in the study. The statistical analysis revealed that women had a thinner hemidiaphragm than men on both sides and at the various breathing times studied. The lower limit of normality of the diaphragm thickness measured at end-expiration was estimated to be 1.3 mm in men and 1.1 mm in women, on both sides. The thickening fraction did not differ significantly between men and women. In men, it ranged from 60 to 260% on the left side and from 57 to 200% on the right side. In women, it ranged from 58 to 264% on the left side and from 60 to 229% on the right side. The lower limits of normality of the thickening fraction were determined to be 40 and 39% in men and 39 and 48% in women for the right and left hemidiaphragms, respectively. The upper limit for normal of the mean of both sides of the ratio thickness at end-inspiration divided by the thickness at deep breathing was determined to be 0.78 in women and 0.79 in men.Conclusion: The normal values of thickness and the indexes of diaphragmatic function should help clinicians with detecting diaphragm atrophy and dysfunction.

2021 ◽  
Juping Liu ◽  
Jie Hao ◽  
Ye Zhang ◽  
Kai Cao ◽  
Xiaorong Li ◽  

Abstract Background The sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) is more precise than body mass index (BMI) for predicting adverse events in elderly. While physical function and BMI is related, the relationship is uncertain. BMI and gait speed (GS) is related and have a U-shaped distribution. The objective was to examine the relationship between GS and SAD in men and women aged 50 years and older. Methods This was a cross-sectional analysis. Data from the Handan Eye Study (HES), a Chinese prospective longitudinal study with participants randomly selected from the Yongnian county. Usual GS was measured over a 4 meters-track. SAD was categorized by interquartile: <18.0cm; 18.0-19.79cm; 19.8-21.89cm; ≥21.9cm. Unadjusted and adjusted analyses of covariance were performed to estimate the gender-specific means (and 95% CI) of GS (in m/s) according to SAD categories. Results The current analyses were performed in 2852 participants. Mean age was 56.16 years for women and 56.54 years for men. The unadjusted means of GS were 0.995 (95% CI 0.972-1.019) m/s in SAD Q1 participants, 0.991 (95% CI 0.968-1.014) m/s in SAD Q2, 0.986 (95% CI 0.964-1.007) m/s in SAD Q3 and 0.961 (95% CI 0.937-0.985) m/s in SAD Q4 individuals in women. The similar trend presented in men [Q1: 0.993 (95%CI 0.969-1.016) m/s; Q2: 0.980 (95%CI 0.956-1.004); Q3: 0.944 (95%CI 0.918-0.970); Q4: 0.948 (95%CI 0.923-0.973)]. After adjustment for age, the reported trends between GS and SAD in categories were largely confirmed in women, but not in men. Conclusions Age and gender should be considered when we explore the relationship between GS and SAD in elderly.

2021 ◽  
Zhang-Xin Wen ◽  
Yong-Fang Li ◽  
Lu-Lu Xu ◽  
Chun Yue ◽  
Qin-Yi Wang ◽  

Abstract Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the relationship of triglyceride glucose-body mass index (TyG-BMI) with bone mineral density, femoral neck geometry, and risk of fracture in middle-aged and elderly Chinese individuals. Methods: A total of 832 nondiabetic individuals (474 men aged ≥50 years and 358 postmenopausal women) were selected from the prospective population-based HOPE cohort. All individuals underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for assessment of bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total hip, as well as femoral neck geometry. The 10-year probabilities of major osteoporotic fractures (MOFs) and hip fractures (HFs) were calculated. Correlations of TyG-BMI with BMD at different sites, femoral neck geometry, and risk of fractures were examined in men and women. Results: Cortical thickness (CT), compression strength index (CSI), cross-sectional moment of inertia (CSMI), cross-sectional area (CSA), section modulus (SM), and 25(OH)D levels were significantly lower in women (all P < 0.001). The presence of osteoporosis was related to age, BMI, BMD and femoral neck geometry, TyG-BMI index and TyG index, MOF and HF in both sex. TyG-BMI was positively correlated with BMD at femoral neck, lumber spine, and total hip and with femoral neck geometry parameters in men, Similar significant association was also present in women. In men, TyG-BMI showed significant negative correlation with HF but not with MOF. In women, TyG-BMI showed significant negative correlation with both factors only after adjusting for other variable. The various geometric indices of the femoral neck were 3 significantly impaired in individuals with low TyG-BMI. the TyG-BMI index was found to be significantly associated with osteoporosis after adjusting for confounders. Conclusion: TyG-BMI is positively associated with BMD and femoral neck geometry, and negatively associated with risk of fracture in nondiabetic middle-aged and elderly Chinese men and women.

Jocelyn Sagun-De Vera ◽  

Men and women have been compared and contrasted for years on many different topics and on different places. Today, regardless certain behaviors both can almost do the same activities. This study aimed to determine the gender roles on salt farming practices in Western Pangasinan , the benefits from salt farming and some problems encountered by the farmers. The study made use of the descriptive survey research design. Respondents were selected through simple random sampling technique employing questionnaires to collect the needed data. Frequency, percentage, average weighted mean and t-test were used for data analysis. A total of 132 respondents (73 males and 59 females) were interviewed from salt farms situated in Alaminos City, Dasol, Bani and BolinaoPangasinan. Results showed that 34.84% of the respondents are working in the farm for almost 11 to 15 years now, that aside from salt farming 25.75% go for fishing during rainy season.. Findings also revealed that male salt farmers (AWM=3.83) in Western Pangasinan conduct salt bed preparation more frequently than female (AWM=2.69) salt farmers. On the other hand, salt farming practices of the male (AWM=3.74) and female (AWM=2.89) salt farmers are not significantly different. Hence, male and female salt farmers in Western Pangasinan have similar salt farming practices. Most of the male and female salt farmers were benefited because they were able to send their children to their college/vocational education and they were able to deliver salt to other places and that some of them were able to put up a warehouse. It is therefore recommended that in order to have a continuous salt production a technology which help salt farmers will be created.

2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (4) ◽  
pp. 25-33
Jinhua Guo

The bride price, as a deeply influential marriage custom rooted in traditional Chinese society, is an important and indispensable procedure in the process of marriage conclusion. The existence of bride price in the rural society is not wrong, but the high bride price has brought many inconveniences to the farmers’ life. This paper selects X village in south Henan as the research object, and conducts an in-depth investigation on the marriage culture of the village by using literature research and interview method, and makes a detailed interpretation of the bride price and wedding customs in the village, analyzes the inevitability of the existence of “high bride price”, and then concludes that the imbalance of the gender ratio of marriageable men and women, the change of the main body to which the bride price belongs, the parents’ The four reasons for this are: the imbalance in the gender ratio of marriageable men and women, the change in the main body of the bride price, the unlimited parental support, and the influence of “face” of rural people. “As a prevalent phenomenon, we should deal with it rationally and find appropriate ways to curb the high bride price.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Mimi Xiong ◽  
Fengyan Wang

Gender differences in wisdom are an important theme in mythology, philosophy, psychology, and daily life. Based on the existing psychological research, consensus and dispute exist between the two genders on the views of wisdom and in the levels of wisdom. In terms of the views of wisdom, the way men and women view wisdom is highly similar, and from the perspectives of both ordinary people and professional researchers of wisdom psychology, wise men and women are extremely similar. Regarding wisdom level, research has revealed that, although significant gender effects exist in the level of overall wisdom, reflective and affective dimension, and interpersonal conflict coping styles, the effect sizes were small, which indicated that these gender differences were not obvious. It would be desirable for future research to combine multiple wisdom measurements, strengthen research on the psychological gender effect of wisdom, and focus on the moderating role of age on the relationship between wisdom and gender.

Alireza Eftekhari Moghadam ◽  
Forouzan Absalan ◽  
Jafar Rezaian ◽  
Kimia Pirzad ◽  
Atefeh Zahedi

This study was aimed to evaluate the facial dimensions and their relation with gender and stature in the Iranian southwest population. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 300 southwest Iranian cases age 20-50 years (150 males and 150 females). Studied variables through physical anthropometry in both genders were Upper facial height (UFH), Total facial height (TFH), Facial Height (FH), Facial Width (FW), and intercanthal width (IC) using a standard sliding caliper and Collis. Regarding the sex and age of the individuals, general descriptive analysis of facial dimensions was determined. All measurements, except TFH and FH, were different between men and women (p≤ 0.01). In male subjects, the Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r) revealed that IC (0.72 ⃰ ⃰ ), FW (0.58 ⃰ ⃰ ) and UFH (0.18 ⃰⃰ ⃰ ) parameters had a positive correlation with stature. In the female group, none of the facial parameters had a significant correlation with stature. Regarding the value of each facial diameter in discriminating male and female stature and gender, the highest discriminative value was specified to the FW (cutoff: 11.89, sensitivity: 89%, specificity: 11%) and IC (cutoff: 2.26, sensitivity: 98%, specificity: 0.04%) respectively. This study showed a significant association of some facial measurements with stature and gender in the southwest Iranian population. IC and FW had the most diagnostic value for gender and stature definition. It is shown a useful reference for the adult southwest Iranian population for facial recognition and that the subject’s sex should be considered during body identification procedures.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (4) ◽  
pp. 52
Alan S. Kaufman

U. S. Supreme Court justices and other federal judges are, effectively, appointed for life, with no built-in check on their cognitive functioning as they approach old age. There is about a century of research on aging and intelligence that shows the vulnerability of processing speed, fluid reasoning, visual-spatial processing, and working memory to normal aging for men and women at all levels of education; even the maintained ability of crystallized knowledge declines in old age. The vulnerable abilities impact a person’s decision-making and problem solving; crystallized knowledge, by contrast, measures a person’s general knowledge. The aging-IQ data provide a rationale for assessing the key cognitive abilities of anyone who is appointed to the federal judiciary. Theories of multiple cognitive abilities and processes, most notably the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) model, provide a well-researched blueprint for interpreting the plethora of findings from studies of IQ and aging. Sophisticated technical advances in test construction, especially in item-response theory and computerized-adaptive testing, allow for the development of reliable and valid theory-based tests of cognitive functioning. Such assessments promise to be a potentially useful tool for evaluating federal judges to assess the impact of aging on their ability to perform at a level their positions deserve, perhaps to measure their competency to serve the public intelligently. It is proposed that public funding be made available to appoint a panel of experts to develop and validate an array of computerized cognitive tests to identify those justices who are at risk of cognitive impairment.

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