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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
R. Ejaz ◽  
M. T. Ashraf ◽  
S. Qadeer ◽  
M. Irfan ◽  
A. Azam ◽  

Abstract COVID-19 is reported as an extremely contagious disease with common symptoms of fever, dry cough, sore throat, and tiredness. The published literature on incidence and gender-wise prevalence of COVID-19 is scarce in Pakistan. Therefore, the present study was designed to compare the distribution, incubation period and mortality rate of COVID-19 among the male and female population of district Attock. The data were collected between 01 April 2020 and 07 December 2020 from the population of district Attock, Pakistan. A total of 22,962 individuals were screened and 843 were found positive for RT-qPCR for SARS-CoV-2. The confirmed positive cases were monitored carefully. Among the positive cases, the incidence of COVID-19 was 61.7% among males and 38.2% among females. The average recovery period of males was 18.89±7.75 days and females were 19±8.40 days from SARS-CoV-2. The overall mortality rate was 8.06%. The death rate of male patients was significantly higher (P<0.05) compared to female patients. Also, the mortality rate was higher (P<0.05) in male patients of 40-60 years of age compared to female patients of the same age group. Moreover, the mortality rate significantly increased (P<0.05) with the increase of age irrespective of gender. In conclusion, the incidence and mortality rate of COVID-19 is higher in males compared to the female population. Moreover, irrespective of gender the mortality rate was significantly lower among patients aged <40 years.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Fan Yang ◽  
Xin-hui Xie ◽  
Xi Li ◽  
Hui-na Liao ◽  
Bing Zou

Objective: To assess the correlation between the incidence of non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) and psychological factors, especially somatoform disorders. To investigate the characteristics of gut microbiome in NERD patients.Methods: We enrolled 24 NERD patients and 24 healthy controls. All patients were evaluated via GerdQ, SOMS-7, SAS, HAMA, and HAMD. Fecal samples were collected and 16S rRNA sequencing was performed to evaluate the gut microbiome composition.Results: The main symptoms of the NERD patients were regurgitation (87.5%), belching (66.7%), pharyngeal discomfort (50%), and heartburn (37.5%). The average score of GerdQ was 13.42 ± 3.41. In 15 patients (62.5%), the total score of the last two items was &lt;3 points, while the average score of 24 patients was 3.63 ± 2.32. NERD patients with somatoform disorders accounted for 50%. There were 17 patients without anxiety, 6 patients with mild anxiety (25%), 1 patient with moderate anxiety (4.2%), and no patient with severe anxiety. There were 22 patients (91.7%) without depression, 2 patients (8.3%) with mild depression, and no patient with moderate or severe depression. The alpha diversity of NERD group was higher than HC, which showed significant difference (P &lt; 0.05). The beta-diversity was significantly different between HC and NERD patients (P = 0.026), male and female patients (P = 0.009). The beta-diversity was also significantly different between male and female patients (P = 0.009). There were several bacteria with significant differences between HC and NERD group, and NERD patients with or without somatoform disorders, such as Firmicutes, TM7 were enriched in the NERD group compared with the healthy control group, while Bacteroidetes were enriched in the healthy controls.Conclusions: NERD symptoms overlap with somatoform disorders. NERD symptoms have an impact on the daily life quality of patients. Some of them are accompanied by anxiety and depression of different degrees, and the two are significantly correlated. The diversity of gut microbiome in patients with NERD is significantly higher than healthy controls, which has its characteristics. The predominant bacteria in gut microbiome of patients with NERD are similar to the healthy population, with Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes as the main ones. The composition of gut microbiome in NERD patients with or without somatoform disorder is significantly different, which may be related to the interaction of microbiome-brain-gut axis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 01-05
Rumiyya Karimova

Objective: To study the pathomorphosis of vascular dementia over the past 30 years. The study of the pathomorphosis of mental disorders makes significant adjustments to the criteria for diagnosis and nosography. Dementia has also undergone pathomorphosis over the years. Materials and Methods: The research was carried out in the Psychiatric Hospitalsin Azerbaijan. A retrospective analysis was carried out for the period 1990-1999, which were compared with a similar contingent during 2010-2020. Results: The number of hospitalized patients with vascular dementia has increased over the past 10 years, which means both an increase in the incidence of the disease and an increase in symptoms requiring psychiatric treatment. Conclusions: Pathomorphosis has also manifested itself in sex. Thus, the number of female patients has increased in the last 10 years. As a result of the disease, there is a positive trend, a decrease in mortality.

2022 ◽  
Chingiz Ali Aga og. Alizade ◽  
Huseyn Aliyev ◽  
Farhad Chigiz oglu Alizada

Abstract Purpose To develop and investigate the results of a new, simple and versatile method of tibia- calcaneal arthrodesis that reduces limb shortening. Materials and methods This prospective study was conducted in patients who voluntarily agreed to a new operation. Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study. For 17 years, we have observed 14 patients with various forms of osteomyelitis, fractures and septic necrosis of the talus, who underwent a new method of tibio-calcaneal-navicular arthrodesis (TCNA). The age of the patients ranged from 23 to 75 years, (42 years on average). 2 patients were female, 12 were male. The Ilizarov apparatus was used as a fixator. The average time of immobilization in the apparatus was 4.9 months (from 3.5 to 6 months). The operations were performed by one surgeon. Results In all patients the wounds healed by primary intention. The average limb shortening 1.9 ± 0.5 cm. AOFAS Ankle-Hindfoot score (n=14) in all patients came up to 77,9 ± 6,8 (min 68, max 86) SD 12,8. Patients wore ordinary footwear without arch supporter and heels till 2cm. Only two female patients over 70 years used a stick. 2 patients had minor pain during prolonged walking. Conclusion Excellent and good results were obtained in all patients. The new TCNA method allows restoring the support ability of a limb, reduces shortening and improves the quality of life for patients.

2022 ◽  
pp. 039156032110690
Özlem Gözlersüzer ◽  
Bestami Yalvaç ◽  
Basri Çakıroğlu

Objective: Magnetic stimulation (MS) provides a novel strategy for the treatment of urinary incontinence (UI), although its efficacy remains uncertain. This systematic review both evaluated the effects of MS treatment on UI and investigated its impacts on female patients’ life quality. Methods: A review of the literature that was conducted in EMBASE, PubMed, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Library (2016–2021) with the search terms; Incontinence of stress OR urge of urination OR Urinary incontinence mixed type. The search was carried out for all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in English. A manual search has also been conducted for the reference lists of the studies found. Seven studies, with a total of 523 patients (475 patients with SUI), 12 urge urinary incontinence. The study included patients with (UUI) and 36 patients with mixed urinary incontinence (MUI). A total of 10 male patients were excluded from the study. In the included studies, The International Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form was used to investigate the effects of MS therapy on UI symptoms (ICIQ-SF). Results: According to the literature review, MS is an effective therapy option for female patients with UI. Still, to establish the efficacy of MS in this area, more large-scale, high-quality RCTs with extended follow-up periods that use consistent stimulation modalities and evaluate comparable outcomes are needed. Conclusion: MS treatment leads to an improvement in the symptoms of UI, in addition to an associated Improved quality of life for patients, without any reported side effects, while the longer-term treatment outcomes must be determined by long-term trials.

2022 ◽  
pp. 56-60
E. V. Uvarova ◽  
E. P. Khashchenko ◽  
S. O. Kyurdzidi

This review is addressing an urgent problem of diagnosis and treatment strategy of polycystic ovary syndrome in adolescent girls. We analysed data from modern literary publications on the epidemiology and classification of the disease, as well as the adaptation of general principles for the management of young female patients tailored to their age peculiarities. The effective treatment strategies for adolescent girls with PCOS depending on its type are presented. Today there are several contradictions associated with both the diagnosis and treatment of the disease in the medical community. Thus, the use of the well-known Rotterdam criteria makes it difficult to diagnose PCOS in adolescent girls, since the criteria do not take into account characteristic changes that occur during puberty. Such manifestations as acne, hirsutism, menstrual irregularities, high androgen levels and morphology of polycystic ovaries on pelvic ultrasound imaging should be assessed with due account for age, puberty, hormonal balance with an assessment of the ratio of LH (luteinizing hormone)/FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) and Free Androgen Index. There is no consensus in the medical community regarding the treatment strategy for PCOS. International communities have identified two main goals in the management of patients: normalization of menstrual function and improvement of the patients’ quality of life by preventing clinical symptoms of hyperandrogenism, and metabolic disorders of hyperplastic processes in target organs.Our analysis of objective scientific data showed that modern monophasic combined oral contraceptives (COCs) supplemented by of a folate component should be used to treat young female patients with PCOS, hyperandrogenism and psychosomatic disorders.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 9
Tomislav Katanec ◽  
Lea Budak ◽  
Davor Brajdić ◽  
Dragana Gabrić

Peripheral ossifying fibroma (POF) is a benign localized lesion originating from gingival and alveolar oral mucosa. Its origin can be cells of periodontal ligament. The lesions usually develop in women in their twenties. POF is a complex clinical and histological diagnosis due to its shared characteristics with many other conditions. In this paper, we presented a case of an atypical peripheral ossifying fibroma (POF) in the left lateral part of the mandible in a 70-year-old male patient who had two semicircular bridges supported on four implants in the upper and lower jaws. A review of CBCT and orthopedic imaging showed no visible intraosseous changes. Histological analysis revealed the diagnosis of POF. The case in question is interesting, as elaborated on in the discussion section of this paper because POF is usually found in female patients aged between 20 and 30 years.

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