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2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (3) ◽  
pp. 540-543
Kosuke Ishizuka ◽  
Takanori Uehara ◽  
Makoto Arai ◽  
Junichiro Ikeda ◽  
Yuta Hirose ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Junfeng Zhong ◽  
Junfeng Hu ◽  
Linling Mao ◽  
Gang Ye ◽  
Kai Qiu ◽  

ObjectiveTo compare the efficacy of intravenous (IV) lidocaine with standard analgesics (NSAIDS, opioids) for pain control due to any cause in the emergency department.MethodsThe electronic databases of PubMed, Embase, ScienceDirect, CENTRAL, and Google Scholar were explored from 1st January 2000 to 30th March 2021 and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing IV lidocaine with a control group of standard analgesics were included.ResultsTwelve RCTs including 1,351 patients were included. The cause of pain included abdominal pain, renal or biliary colic, traumatic pain, radicular low back pain, critical limb ischemia, migraine, tension-type headache, and pain of unknown origin. On pooled analysis, we found no statistically significant difference in pain scores between IV lidocaine and control group at 15 min (MD: −0.24 95% CI: −1.08, 0.61 I2 = 81% p = 0.59), 30 min (MD: −0.24 95% CI: −1.03, 0.55 I2 = 86% p = 0.55), 45 min (MD: 0.31 95% CI: −0.66, 1.29 I2 = 66% p = 0.53), and 60 min (MD: 0.59 95% CI: −0.26, 1.44 I2 = 75% p = 0.18). There was no statistically significant difference in the need for rescue analgesics between the two groups (OR: 1.45 95% CI: 0.82, 2.56 I2 = 41% p = 0.20), but on subgroup analysis, the need for rescue analgesics was significantly higher with IV lidocaine in studies on abdominal pain but not for musculoskeletal pain. On meta-analysis, there was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of side-effects between the two study groups (OR: 1.09 95% CI: 0.59, 2.02 I2 = 48% p = 0.78).ConclusionIV lidocaine can be considered as an alternative analgesic for pain control in the ED. However, its efficacy may not be higher than standard analgesics. Further RCTs with a large sample size are needed to corroborate the current conclusions.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 386
Kim-Heang Ly ◽  
Nathalie Costedoat-Chalumeau ◽  
Eric Liozon ◽  
Stéphanie Dumonteil ◽  
Jean-Pierre Ducroix ◽  

Fluorodesoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography (PET/CT) has never been compared to Chest-Abdomen-Pelvis CT (CAPCT) in patients with a fever of unknown origin (FUO), inflammation of unknown origin (IUO) and episodic fever of unknown origin (EFUO) through a prospective and multicentre study. In this study, we investigated the diagnostic value of PET/CT compared to CAPCT in these patients. The trial was performed between 1 May 2008 through 28 February 2013 with 7 French University Hospital centres. Patients who fulfilled the FUO, IUO or EFUO criteria were included. Diagnostic orientation (DO), diagnostic contribution (DC) and time for diagnosis of both imaging resources were evaluated. One hundred and three patients were included with 35 FUO, 35 IUO and 33 EFUO patients. PET/CT showed both a higher DO (28.2% vs. 7.8%, p < 0.001) and DC (19.4% vs. 5.8%, p < 0.001) than CAPCT and reduced the time for diagnosis in patients (3.8 vs. 17.6 months, p = 0.02). Arthralgia (OR 4.90, p = 0.0012), DO of PET/CT (OR 4.09, p = 0.016), CRP > 30 mg/L (OR 3.70, p = 0.033), and chills (OR 3.06, p = 0.0248) were associated with the achievement of a diagnosis (Se: 89.1%, Sp: 56.8%). PET/CT both orients and contributes to diagnoses at a higher rate than CAPCT, especially in patients with FUO and IUO, and reduces the time for diagnosis.

2022 ◽  
Brian Mendel ◽  
Valerie Dirjayanto ◽  
Radityo Prakoso ◽  
Sisca Siagian

Abstract Background: Brugada Syndrome (BrS) and arrhythmogenic right ventricle dysplasia (ARVD) are rare cardiomyopathies predisposing to sudden cardiac death (SCD). Comprehending the electrocardiographic features of these cardiomyopathies are crucial especially in emergency settings.Case presentation: A 25-year old medical student presented with no complaints, but had episodes of syncope, chest pain, and palpitations of unknown origin 10 years ago. The initial assessment showed stable hemodynamics. During examination, the ECG demonstrated incomplete right bundle branch block, Brugada-type 1 pattern, with signs of Epsilon wave. The following year, assessment of the ECG was repeated and findings were found suggestive of Brugada syndrome, although his echocardiography showed no structural abnormality. According to ESC guidelines, asymptomatic Brugada patients should undergo electrophysiology study.Conclusion: Careful follow-up with electrophysiology study is recommended for this patient in order to identify the likelihood of true Brugada and suitability for radiofrequency ablation or implantation of implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD).

Anna Masiak ◽  
Amanda Lass ◽  
Jacek Kowalski ◽  
Adam Hajduk ◽  
Zbigniew Zdrojewski

Abstract Background The association between COVID-19 infection and the development of autoimmune diseases is currently unknown, but there are already reports presenting induction of different autoantibodies by SARS-CoV-2 infection. Kikuchi-Fuimoto disease (KFD) as a form of histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis of unknown origin. Objective Here we present a rare case of KFD with heart involvement after COVID-19 infection. To our best knowledge only a few cases of COVID-19-associated KFD were published so far. Based on presented case, we summarize the clinical course of KFD and its association with autoimmune diseases, as well we discuss the potential causes of perimyocarditis in this case. Methods We reviewed the literature regarding cases of “Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease (KFD)” and “COVID-19” and then “KFD” and “heart” or “myocarditis” by searching medical journal databases written in English in PubMed and Google Scholar. Results Only two cases of KFD after COVID infection have been described so far. Conclusion SARS-CoV-2 infection can also be a new, potential causative agent of developing KFD.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Yongjuan Liu ◽  
Jingyi Zhou ◽  
Guangquan Ji ◽  
Yupeng Gao ◽  
Chunyan Zhang ◽  

AbstractRecombination plays important roles in the genetic diversity and evolution of Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71). The phylogenetics of EV-A71 in mainland China found that one strain DL71 formed a new subgenotype C6 with unknown origin. This study investigated the detailed genetic characteristics of the new variant. DL71 formed a distinct cluster within genotype C based on the genome and individual genes (5′UTR, VP4, VP1, 2A, 2B, 2C, 3D, and 3′UTR). The average genetic distances of the genome and individual genes (VP3, 2A, 2B, 2C, 3A, 3C, and 3D) between DL71 and reference strains were greater than 0.1. Nine recombination events involving smaller fragments along DL71 genome were detected. The strains Fuyang-0805a (C4) and Tainan/5746/98 (C2) were identified as the parental strains of DL71. In the non-recombination regions, DL71 had higher identities with Fuyang-0805a than Tainan/5746/98, and located in the cluster with C4 strains. However, in the recombination regions, DL71 had higher identities with Tainan/5746/98 than Fuyang-0805a, and located in the cluster with C2 strains. Thus, DL71 was a novel multiple inter-subgenotype recombinant derived from the dominant subgenotype C4 and the sporadic subgenotype C2 strains. Monitoring the emergence of new variants by the whole-genome sequencing remains essential for preventing disease outbreaks and developing new vaccines.

Wanru Guo ◽  
Xuewen Feng ◽  
Ming Hu ◽  
Yanwan Shangguan ◽  
Jiafeng Xia ◽  

BackgroundFever of unknown origin (FUO) is still a challenge for clinicians. Next-generation sequencing technologies, such as whole exome sequencing (WES), can be used to identify genetic defects in patients and assist in diagnosis. In this study, we investigated the application of WES in individuals with FUO.MethodsWe performed whole-exome sequencing on 15 FUO patients. Clinical information was extracted from the hospital information system.ResultsIn 7/15 samples, we found positive results, including potentially causative mutations across eight different genes: CFTR, CD209, IRF2BP2, ADGRV 1, TYK2, MEFV, THBD and GATA2.ConclusionsOur results show that whole-exome sequencing can promote the genetic diagnosis and treatment of patients with FUO.

2022 ◽  
Wisal Mustafa Ibrahim Mohammed ◽  
Nada Abdelghani Abdelrahim

Abstract BackgroundThe extent of leptospirosis is unknown in Sudan and it might be mistaken for other more common febrile infectious diseases. Leptospirosis might also be associated with renal diseases that are common in Sudan. We intended to explore the existence of human leptospirosis in suspected high risk patients in Khartoum, Sudan, via sero-screening random febrile patients and those undergoing renal dialysis.MethodsThis is a pilot exploratory study that was conducted in 6 months period from April to September of 2013. Hospitals were selected conveniently following a non-random sampling approach. A total of 119 febrile patients (with or without definitive diagnosis) and patients under renal dialysis were included and their serum specimens, clinical and demographic data were collected. Sera were screened qualitatively for the existence of anti-leptospiral IgM antibodies using rapid lateral flow immunosorbent assay. Ethical clearance and official permissions were obtained.ResultsOut of the total 119 patients, 57 (47.9%) had end stage renal disease and were under dialysis at Renal Dialysis Unit in Asbab Charity Hospital in Bahri, 47 (39.5%), were febrile with unknown origin attending the Tropical Medicine Hospital in Omdurman, and 15 (12.6%) were febrile and were diagnosed as having malaria or typhoid and attended Yastabshiron Medical Centre and Bashauer Teaching Hospital. The overall prevalence of anti-leptospiral IgM antibodies among all 119 screened patients was 7%. The prevalence among the 57 with end stage renal disease was 9%, and among the 47 with fever of unknown origin was 6%. The prevalence among the 15 with fever of known origin (diagnosed as malaria or typhoid) was 0%. Almost all positive patients had recurring episodes of fever, are in close contact with livestock, were farmers and have natural untreated source for drinking water.ConclusionLeptospirosis is probably a common febrile condition and can be easily considered as one of the major causes of chronic kidney disease affecting people in this country. A national sero-screening for leptospirosis among those living in high risk geographical areas and those at occupational risk is highly recommended.

Ronald E Fisher ◽  
Ashley L Drews ◽  
Edwin L Palmer

Abstract Background Labeled white blood cell scintigraphy (WBCS) has been used for over 40 years to localize an infection source in patients with fever of unknown origin (FUO). It continues to be in widespread use for such patients in modern times, despite the tremendous advances in modern radiological imaging and laboratory medicine. Methods We critically evaluated the clinical contribution of WBCS performed in 132 patients with FUO at 7 hospitals from mid-2015 to the end of 2019. For each patient, all radiographic and laboratory results, and all electronic clinical notes, were carefully evaluated as many days prior to and following the scan as necessary to arrive at a final diagnosis. Results Although 50 WBCS (38%) showed positive findings, the majority of these were false positive (FP). Of the 19 true positive (TP) scans, most were already known or about to become known by tests already ordered at the time of the scan. Only 2 TP scans (1.5%) contributed to the final diagnosis, and these did so only indirectly. FP scans led to 7 unnecessary procedures. Conclusions In FUO patients for whom an infection source is not discovered following an appropriate radiographic and laboratory workup, WBCS is not a useful procedure.

Jan Holubar ◽  
Jonathan Broner ◽  
Erik Arnaud ◽  
Olivier Hallé ◽  
Thibault Mura ◽  

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