The study has described the history of the research of Listeria, starting from 1924 when it was identified for the first time. Phenotypic and genetic characteristics of Listeria have been described. Furthermore, the occurrence of Listeria in the environment of humans and animals has been presented. Moreover, mechanisms and effectors that influence pathogenesis have been presented as well as the latest information about the extent of presence of listeriosis in European Union countries.
The spread of mupirocin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains in hospitals and communities is a universal challenge. Limited data is available on the genetic features of high-level mupirocin resistant- (HLMUPR-) S. aureus isolates in Tehran. In the present research, we investigated 48 high-level mupirocin resistance S. aureus by antimicrobial activity, virulence analysis, biofilm formation, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and staphylocoagulase (SC) typing. All the HLMUPR strains were positive for mupA gene. The frequency of multidrug resistance was 97.9%. Twenty-one (43.8%) were toxinogenic with 14 producing pvl (29.2%), 5 tst (10.4%), and two eta (4.2%). Among the HLMUPR isolates, biofilm production was detected in 45 (89.6%) isolates with complete dominance clfB, clfA genes, and a noticeably high frequency fnbA (95.8%), followed by fnbB (93.8%), eno and icaD (each 83.3%), sdrC (81.3%), ebps (79.2%), icaA (75%), sdrD (66.7%), fib (60.4%), sdrE (50%), cna (41.7%), and bap (4.2%). Coagulase typing distinguished isolates into four genotypic patterns including III (50%), II (27.1%), and type IVa (22.9%). A total of three clonal complexes (CCs) and 4 sequence types (STs) including CC/ST22 as the most prevalent (52.1%), CC8/ST239 (20.8%), CC/ST8 (16.7%), and CC/ST5 (10.4%) were identified in current work. According to our analysis, nonbiofilm producer isolates belonged to CC8/ST239 (6.3%) and CC/ST8 (4.2%). Fusidic acid-resistant isolates belonged to CC/ST45 (
) and CC8/ST239 (
). Observations highlighted the circulation of the CC/ST22 HLMUPR S. aureus strains with strong biofilm-production ability in our hospitals, indicating the possibility of transmission of this type between community and hospital.
Bornaviruses are a diverse family of viruses infecting various hosts, including birds. Aquatic bird bornavirus 1 (ABBV-1) and aquatic bird bornavirus 2 (ABBV-2) have been found in wild waterfowl but data on their prevalence are scarce. To gain knowledge on the occurrence of ABBVs in Poland, samples originating from dead birds of the Anseriformes order collected in 2016–2021 were tested with a real time RT-PCR method targeting the ABBVs genome. A total of 514 birds were examined, including 401 swans, 96 ducks and 17 geese. The presence of ABBV-1 RNA was detected in 52 swans (10.1% of all tested birds) from 40 different locations. No positive results were obtained for ducks and geese. Sequences of about 2300 bases were generated for 18 viruses and phylogenetic analysis was performed. A relatively low genetic diversity of the examined ABBV-1 strains was observed as all were gathered in a single cluster in the phylogenetic tree and the minimum nucleotide identity was 99.14%. The Polish strains were closely related to ABBV-1 identified previously in Denmark and Germany, but a limited number of sequences from Europe hinders the drawing of conclusions about interconnections between Polish and other European ABBVs. The results of the present study provide new insights into the distribution and genetic characteristics of ABBVs in wild birds in Europe.
The genome sequence of
strain NFP31, which is a chemolithoautotrophic iron-oxidizing bacterium that inhabits acidified volcanic deposits on Mount Oyama, Miyake Island (Miyake-jima), Japan, was determined to identify the genetic characteristics associated with pioneer microbes in newly placed pyroclastic deposits.
The significant variability in the clinical manifestations of COL2A1-associated skeletal dysplasias makes it necessary to conduct a clinical and genetic analysis of individual nosological variants, which will contribute to improving our understanding of the pathogenetic mechanisms and prognosis. We presented the clinical and genetic characteristics of 60 Russian pediatric patients with type II collagenopathies caused by previously described and newly identified variants in the COL2A1 gene. Diagnosis confirmation was carried out by new generation sequencing of the target panel with subsequent validation of the identified variants using automated Sanger sequencing. It has been shown that clinical forms of spondyloepiphyseal dysplasias predominate in childhood, both with more severe clinical manifestations (58%) and with unusual phenotypes of mild forms with normal growth (25%). However, Stickler syndrome, type I was less common (17%). In the COL2A1 gene, 28 novel variants were identified, and a total of 63% of the variants were found in the triple helix region resulted in glycine substitution in Gly-XY repeats, which were identified in patients with clinical manifestations of congenital spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia with varying severity, and were not found in Stickler syndrome, type I and Kniest dysplasia. In the C-propeptide region, five novel variants leading to the development of unusual phenotypes of spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia have been identified.
This paper aims to provide a first glimpse into the genomic characterization of individuals buried in Casal Bertone (Rome, first–third centuries AD) to gain preliminary insight into the genetic makeup of people who lived near a tannery workshop, fullonica. Therefore, we explored the genetic characteristics of individuals who were putatively recruited as fuller workers outside the Roman population. Moreover, we identified the microbial communities associated with humans to detect microbes associated with the unhealthy environment supposed for such a workshop. We examined five individuals from Casal Bertone for ancient DNA analysis through whole-genome sequencing via a shotgun approach. We conducted multiple investigations to unveil the genetic components featured in the samples studied and their associated microbial communities. We generated reliable whole-genome data for three samples surviving the quality controls. The individuals were descendants of people from North African and the Near East, two of the main foci for tannery and dyeing activity in the past. Our evaluation of the microbes associated with the skeletal samples showed microbes growing in soils with waste products used in the tannery process, indicating that people lived, died, and were buried around places where they worked. In that perspective, the results represent the first genomic characterization of fullers from the past. This analysis broadens our knowledge about the presence of multiple ancestries in Imperial Rome, marking a starting point for future data integration as part of interdisciplinary research on human mobility and the bio-cultural characteristics of people employed in dedicated workshops.
AbstractRecombination plays important roles in the genetic diversity and evolution of Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71). The phylogenetics of EV-A71 in mainland China found that one strain DL71 formed a new subgenotype C6 with unknown origin. This study investigated the detailed genetic characteristics of the new variant. DL71 formed a distinct cluster within genotype C based on the genome and individual genes (5′UTR, VP4, VP1, 2A, 2B, 2C, 3D, and 3′UTR). The average genetic distances of the genome and individual genes (VP3, 2A, 2B, 2C, 3A, 3C, and 3D) between DL71 and reference strains were greater than 0.1. Nine recombination events involving smaller fragments along DL71 genome were detected. The strains Fuyang-0805a (C4) and Tainan/5746/98 (C2) were identified as the parental strains of DL71. In the non-recombination regions, DL71 had higher identities with Fuyang-0805a than Tainan/5746/98, and located in the cluster with C4 strains. However, in the recombination regions, DL71 had higher identities with Tainan/5746/98 than Fuyang-0805a, and located in the cluster with C2 strains. Thus, DL71 was a novel multiple inter-subgenotype recombinant derived from the dominant subgenotype C4 and the sporadic subgenotype C2 strains. Monitoring the emergence of new variants by the whole-genome sequencing remains essential for preventing disease outbreaks and developing new vaccines.
As an important member of the
is poorly studied as an emerging human pathogen. We, for the first time, report a unique
isolated from a pediatric patient in China.