causative agent
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2022 ◽  
Vol 2 ◽  
Sefinew Tilahun ◽  
Marye Alemu ◽  
Mesfin Tsegaw ◽  
Nega Berhane

Ginger diseases caused by fungal pathogens have become one of the most serious problems causing reduced production around the world. It has also caused a major problem among farmers in different parts of Ethiopia resulting in a huge decline in rhizome yield. However, the exact causative agents of this disease have not been identified in the state. Although there are few studies related to pathogenic fungus identification, molecular level identification of fungal pathogen was not done in the area. Therefore, this study was undertaken to isolate and characterized the fungal causative agent of ginger disease from the diseased plant and the soil samples collected around the diseased plant from Chilga district, Gondar, Ethiopia. Samples from infected ginger plants and the soil around the infected plant were collected. Culturing and purification of isolates were made using Potato Dextrose Agar supplemented with antibacterial agent chloramphenicol. The morphological characterization was done by structural identification of the isolates under the microscope using lactophenol cotton blue stains. Isolated fungi were cultured and molecular identification was done using an internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of ribosomal DNA (rDNA). A total of 15 fungal morphotypes including 11 Aspergillus spp. (73.3%), 2 Penicillium spp. (13.3%), and single uncultured fungus clone S23 were isolated from the samples representing all the plant organs and the soil. Aspergillus spp. (73.3%) was the most common and seems to be the major causative agent. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of ginger pathogenic fungi in Ethiopia identified using ITS rDNA molecular techniques. This study will lay foundation for the development of management strategies for fungal diseases infecting ginger.

Anna Masiak ◽  
Amanda Lass ◽  
Jacek Kowalski ◽  
Adam Hajduk ◽  
Zbigniew Zdrojewski

Abstract Background The association between COVID-19 infection and the development of autoimmune diseases is currently unknown, but there are already reports presenting induction of different autoantibodies by SARS-CoV-2 infection. Kikuchi-Fuimoto disease (KFD) as a form of histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis of unknown origin. Objective Here we present a rare case of KFD with heart involvement after COVID-19 infection. To our best knowledge only a few cases of COVID-19-associated KFD were published so far. Based on presented case, we summarize the clinical course of KFD and its association with autoimmune diseases, as well we discuss the potential causes of perimyocarditis in this case. Methods We reviewed the literature regarding cases of “Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease (KFD)” and “COVID-19” and then “KFD” and “heart” or “myocarditis” by searching medical journal databases written in English in PubMed and Google Scholar. Results Only two cases of KFD after COVID infection have been described so far. Conclusion SARS-CoV-2 infection can also be a new, potential causative agent of developing KFD.

Xiaozhe Fu ◽  
Kejin Li ◽  
Yinjie Niu ◽  
Qiang Lin ◽  
Hongru Liang ◽  

Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV) is the causative agent of farmed fish disease that has caused huge economic losses in fresh and marine fish aquaculture. The redox state of cells is shaped by virus into a favorable microenvironment for virus replication and proliferation.

Kelly E Allen ◽  
Megan W Lineberry

Abstract Trypanosoma cruzi is the causative agent of Chagas disease in humans and dogs in the Americas. Transmission predominantly occurs via the feces of infected kissing bugs (Hemiptera: family Reduviidae; subfamily Triatominae) contaminating bite site wounds or mucous membranes. To better understand Chagas disease entomologic risk in Oklahoma, kissing bugs collected from within the state were tested for T. cruzi DNA. Data including county of insect collection, species and instar, and specific locations where specimens were found were collated. Triatomines were also tested by PCR to potentially identify DNA of vertebrate species on which specimens had recently fed. In total, 110 kissing bugs from 22 counties were tested. All triatomines were identified as Triatoma sanguisuga nymphs or adults, with the exception of one possible T. lecticularia adult. Trypanosoma cruzi DNA was detected in 22 (20%) triatomines from 12 counties spanning the state. The majority of T. cruzi PCR positive kissing bugs were found inside homes or associated structures (i.e., garages, porches). Vertebrate DNA was identified in 27 (24.5%) triatomines, with human DNA detected in 25 (92.6%) of these specimens, and canine and raccoon DNA detected in one specimen each (3.7%). Two specimens tested positive for both T. cruzi and human DNA and one specimen tested positive for both T. cruzi and raccoon DNA. Results from this study indicate that kissing bugs carrying T. cruzi are widespread in Oklahoma, that positive kissing bugs infest homes and associated structures, and that human-vector, canine-vector, and wildlife-vector contact all occur within the state.

2022 ◽  
pp. 100952
Taraneh Razavyoon ◽  
Seyed Jamal Hashemi ◽  
Saham Ansari ◽  
Parvin Mansouri ◽  
Roshanak Daie Ghazvini ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (74) ◽  
pp. 13-21
V. Sushchikh ◽  
A. Musayeva ◽  
N. Yegorova

Necrobacteriosis affects many species of animals. The most susceptible and sensitive to Fusobacterium necrophorum are reindeer, cattle and small cattle, pigs, and rabbits. A constant carriership of the causative agent of necrobacteriosis in the rumen and intestines of ruminants has been established, causative agent is found in food particles during chewing, as well as in feces. The causative agent of necrobacteriosis is widespread in the environment (livestock buildings, walking yards, manure, soil, pastures, stagnant reservoirs, etc.). Infestation of animals occurs when the pathogen enters the injured areas of the skin or mucous membranes of animals. Disturbed blood circulation, cracks and peeling of the horn happen as a result of long-term keeping of animals in damp premices, grazing them in damp, swampy areas, and also maceration of the limb tissues. Four cultures of the causative agent of cattle necrobacteriosis Fusobacterium necrophorum were isolated from sick animals with symptoms of lameness, their biological properties were studied. The pathogenicity of the isolated cultures was studied in laboratory animals. The work was conducted in laboratory and production conditions in "KazSRVI" LLP and at the dairy farm at "Arkabay" human settlement (village) of Talgar district of Almaty region, where stall keeping of animals is practiced. Slices from the diseased hoof of cows were taken at the border of the diseased and healthy tissue. Samples of the selected biological material were plated on Kitt-Tarozzi medium at the sampling site on the farm. The biological material taken from sick animals was studied within several hours after sampling in accordance with the guidelines for laboratory diagnosis of necrobacteriosis. Material for laboratory research (sections from the horny tissue of the hoof on the border with the healthy one) were taken fresh and inoculated on a nutrient medium for anaerobes.  The results of cultivation of the necrobacteriosis causative agent on liquid and solid nutrient media under anaerobic conditions are presented. To get rid of the accompanying microflora and obtain a pure culture of F. necrophorum, a bioassay was set on laboratory animals - rabbits. All isolated cultures were highly pathogenic for rabbits. On the 14-15th day after infection, the experimental rabbits died. A pure culture of F. necrophorum, not contaminated with extraneous microflora, was sown from the internal organs of rabbits. It was found that rabbits are the optimal biomodel for purification of the F. necrophorum culture.  The biochemical properties of the isolated cultures have been studied. It was found that epizootic cultures of the causative agent of necrobacteriosis emitted hydrogen sulfide and had hemolytic properties. In experiments in vitro and in vivo, it was found that the isolated cultures of F. necrophorum showed hyaluronidase activity. Cultures of F. necrophorum had a high catalase activity, they split hydrogen peroxide with the formation of oxygen (gas bubbles). When studying biochemical properties, it was found that F. necrophorum releases ammonia within 2-3 hours. Four cultures of F. necrophorum isolated from biological material from cattle were identical in biological properties. 

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (3) ◽  
Haeun Kim ◽  
Brianne J. Burkinshaw ◽  
Linh G. Lam ◽  
Kevin Manera ◽  
Tao G. Dong

Cholera is a serious infectious disease in tropical regions causing millions of infections annually. Vibrio cholerae , the causative agent of cholera, has gained multi-antibiotic resistance over the years, posing greater threat to public health and current treatment strategies. Here we report two compounds that effectively target the growth of V. cholerae and have the potential to control cholera infection.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (50) ◽  
A. M. Jimenez Madrid ◽  
T. Klass ◽  
V. Roman-Reyna ◽  
J. Jacobs ◽  
M. L. Lewis Ivey

Erwinia amylovora is the causative agent of fire blight, a devastating disease of apples and pears worldwide. Here, we report draft genome sequences of four streptomycin-sensitive strains of E. amylovora that were isolated from diseased apple trees in Ohio.

2021 ◽  
Vol 25 (1) ◽  
pp. 16-24
O. B. Tamrazova ◽  
A. S. Stadnikova ◽  
E. V. Rudikova

In late 2019, a new viral infection appeared in China, which spread around the world, causing a pandemic. The causative agent of the new coronavirus infection COVID-19 is the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. The review presents modern data on the epidemiology, pathogenesis and course of the novel coronavirus infection COVID-19 in children. Chinese, American and European scientists have described a variety of cutaneous manifestations in children with COVID-19. The article provides a literature review of the cutaneous manifestations of COVID-19 coronavirus infection in children. During our own observation of 301 patients with coronavirus infection COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 at the Bashlyaevs Children Hospital in Moscow from May 17 to November 16, 2020, it was revealed that 39 (13 %) patients had skin manifestations. The article presents a classification of skin manifestations characteristic of COVID-19. A brief description of each group is given.

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