BackgroundSystemic sclerosis (SSc) patients often need immunosuppressive medication (IS) for disease control. If SSc is progressive despite IS, autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (aHSCT) is a treatment option for selected SSc patients. aHSCT is effective with good available evidence, but not all patients achieve a treatment-free remission after aHSCT. Thus far, data about the need of IS after aHSCT in SSc is not published. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of IS after aHSCT, its efficacy, and the occurrence of severe adverse events (SAEs).MethodsTwenty-seven patients with SSc who had undergone aHSCT were included in this single-center retrospective cohort study. Clinical data, including IS, SAEs, and lung function data, were collected.ResultsSixteen of 27 (59.3%) patients received IS after aHSCT. Methotrexate, rituximab, mycophenolate, cyclophosphamide, and hydroxychloroquine were most commonly used. The main reason for starting IS was SSc progress. Nine patients received rituximab after aHSCT and showed an improvement in modified Rodnan skin score and a stabilization of lung function 2 years after rituximab. SAEs in patients with IS after aHSCT (50.0%) were not more common than in patients without IS (54.6%). SAEs were mostly due to SSc progress, secondary autoimmune diseases, or infections. Two deaths after aHSCT were transplantation related and three during long-term follow-up due to pulmonary arterial hypertension.ConclusionDisease progression and secondary autoimmune diseases may necessitate IS after aHSCT in SSc. Rituximab seems to be an efficacious treatment option in this setting. Long-term data on the safety of aHSCT is reassuring.
Neoplasic transformation is a continuous process that occurs in the body. Even before clinical signs, the immune system is capable of recognizing these aberrant cells and reacting to suppress them. However, transformed cells acquire the ability to evade innate and adaptive immune defenses through the secretion of molecules that inhibit immune effector functions, resulting in tumor progression. Hormones have the ability to modulate the immune system and are involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, and cancer. Hormones can control both the innate and adaptive immune systems in men and women. For example androgens reduce immunity through modulating the production of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediators. Women are more prone than men to suffer from autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis and others. This is linked to female hormones modulating the immune system. Patients with autoimmune diseases consistently have an increased risk of cancer, either as a result of underlying immune system dysregulation or as a side effect of pharmaceutical treatments. Epidemiological data on cancer incidence emphasize the link between the immune system and cancer. We outline and illustrate the occurrence of hormone-related cancer and its relationship to the immune system or autoimmune diseases in this review. It is obvious that some observations are contentious and require explanation of molecular mechanisms and validation. As a result, future research should clarify the molecular pathways involved, including any causal relationships, in order to eventually allocate information that will aid in the treatment of hormone-sensitive cancer and autoimmune illness.
BackgroundIgG4 is associated with two emerging groups of rare diseases: 1) IgG4 autoimmune diseases (IgG4-AID) and 2) IgG4-related diseases (IgG4-RLD). Anti-neuronal IgG4-AID include MuSK myasthenia gravis, LGI1- and Caspr2-encephalitis and autoimmune nodo-/paranodopathies (CNTN1/Caspr1 or NF155 antibodies). IgG4-RLD is a multiorgan disease hallmarked by tissue-destructive fibrotic lesions with lymphocyte and IgG4 plasma cell infiltrates and increased serum IgG4 concentrations. It is unclear whether IgG4-AID and IgG4-RLD share relevant clinical and immunopathological features.MethodsWe collected and analyzed clinical, serological, and histopathological data in 50 patients with anti-neuronal IgG4-AID and 19 patients with IgG4-RLD.ResultsA significantly higher proportion of IgG4-RLD patients had serum IgG4 elevation when compared to IgG4-AID patients (52.63% vs. 16%, p = .004). Moreover, those IgG4-AID patients with elevated IgG4 did not meet the diagnostic criteria of IgG4-RLD, and their autoantibody titers did not correlate with their serum IgG4 concentrations. In addition, patients with IgG4-RLD were negative for anti-neuronal/neuromuscular autoantibodies and among these patients, men showed a significantly higher propensity for IgG4 elevation, when compared to women (p = .005). Last, a kidney biopsy from a patient with autoimmune paranodopathy due to CNTN1/Caspr1-complex IgG4 autoantibodies and concomitant nephrotic syndrome did not show fibrosis or IgG4+ plasma cells, which are diagnostic hallmarks of IgG4-RLD.ConclusionOur observations suggest that anti-neuronal IgG4-AID and IgG4-RLD are most likely distinct disease entities.
The association between COVID-19 infection and the development of autoimmune diseases is currently unknown, but there are already reports presenting induction of different autoantibodies by SARS-CoV-2 infection. Kikuchi-Fuimoto disease (KFD) as a form of histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis of unknown origin.
Here we present a rare case of KFD with heart involvement after COVID-19 infection. To our best knowledge only a few cases of COVID-19-associated KFD were published so far. Based on presented case, we summarize the clinical course of KFD and its association with autoimmune diseases, as well we discuss the potential causes of perimyocarditis in this case.
We reviewed the literature regarding cases of “Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease (KFD)” and “COVID-19” and then “KFD” and “heart” or “myocarditis” by searching medical journal databases written in English in PubMed and Google Scholar.
Only two cases of KFD after COVID infection have been described so far.
SARS-CoV-2 infection can also be a new, potential causative agent of developing KFD.
Objective: To analyze the clinical features of common autoimmune encephalitis and evaluate the sensitivity of antibodies contributing to focal epilepsy signs and symptoms (ACES) score.Methods: Collecting and analyzing the data of 242 patients with autoimmune encephalitis (AE) diagnosed in the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from August 2015 to December 2020 in this retrospective study. The six items of the ACES score (cognitive symptoms, behavioral changes, autonomic symptoms, speech problems, autoimmune diseases, temporal MRI hyperintensities) were screened in patients with complete clinical data.Results: (1) In total, 242 patients were included, with 147 cases of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis, 47 cases of anti-γ-aminobutyric acid type B (GABA-B) receptor encephalitis, and 48 cases of anti-leucine-rich glioma inactivating protein 1 (LGI1) encephalitis. The most common clinical symptoms are cognitive impairment (77%), behavioral changes (79%), and seizures (71%). In total, 129 cases (54%) combined with autonomic dysfunction, such as gastrointestinal dysmotility, sinus tachycardia, and central hypoventilation. Twelve patients had autoimmune diseases, most of which were of thyroid diseases. (2) One hundred and twenty-seven patients with complete clinical data evaluated ACES score, 126 cases of whom (126/127, 99.2%) were equal to or >2 points, 1 case (1/127, 0.8%) was of <2 points.Interpretation: (1) Cognitive impairment, abnormal behavior, and seizures are the most common manifestations of AE and autonomic symptoms. Thyroid disease is the most autoimmune disease in AE. Clinically, for patients of suspected AE, increasing the knowledge and testing of thyroid function and rheumatism is necessary. (2) ACES score is a simple, effective, and easy-to-operate score, with a certain screening value for most patients suspected of AE.
Wound healing is a highly coordinated process which leads to the repair and regeneration of damaged tissue. Still, numerous diseases such as diabetes, venous insufficiencies or autoimmune diseases could disturb proper wound healing and lead to chronic and non-healing wounds, which are still a great challenge for medicine. For many years, research has been carried out on finding new therapeutics which improve the healing of chronic wounds. One of the most extensively studied active substances that has been widely tested in the treatment of different types of wounds was Substance P (SP). SP is one of the main neuropeptides released by nervous fibers in responses to injury. This review provides a thorough overview of the application of SP in different types of wound models and assesses its efficacy in wound healing.
IKAROS and CTLA4 deficiencies are inborn errors of immunity and show similar clinical phenotypes, including hypogammaglobulinemia and autoimmune diseases (ADs). However, the differences in clinical features and pathogenesis of these are not fully understood. Therefore, we performed systematic literature reviews for IKAROS and CTLA4 deficiencies. The reviews suggested that patients with IKAROS deficiency develop AD earlier than hypogammaglobulinemia. However, no study assessed the detailed changes in clinical manifestations over time; this was likely due to the cross-sectional nature of the studies. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective longitudinal study on IKAROS and CTLA4 deficiencies in our cohort to evaluate the clinical course over time. In patients with IKAROS deficiency, AD and hypogammaglobulinemia often develop in that order, and AD often resolves before the onset of hypogammaglobulinemia; these observations were not found in patients with CTLA4 deficiency. Understanding this difference in the clinical course helps in the clinical management of both. Furthermore, our results suggest B- and T-cell-mediated ADs in patients with IKAROS and CTLA4 deficiencies, respectively.