Intestinal homeostasis is a dynamic balance involving the interaction between the host intestinal mucosa, immune barrier, intestinal microecology, nutrients, and metabolites. Once homeostasis is out of balance, it will increase the risk of intestinal diseases and is also closely associated with some systemic diseases. Probiotics (Escherichia coli Nissle 1917, Akkermansia muciniphila, Clostridium butyricum, lactic acid bacteria and Bifidobacterium spp.), maintaining the gut homeostasis through direct interaction with the intestine, can also exist as a specific agent to prevent, alleviate, or cure intestinal-related diseases. With genetic engineering technology advancing, probiotics can also show targeted therapeutic properties. The aims of this review are to summarize the roles of potential native and engineered probiotics in oncology, inflammatory bowel disease, and obesity, discussing the therapeutic applications of these probiotics.