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2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (2) ◽  
pp. 385-391
Jorge Alejandro Cadena Arteaga ◽  
Fabricio Andres Lasso Andrade ◽  
Denny Marcela Achicanoy Puchana ◽  
Diana Fernanda Achicanoy Puchana ◽  
Gina Natalia Caicedo Morillo ◽  

Hand ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 155894472110669
Lana L. de Lima ◽  
Diego Ariel de Lima ◽  
Thiago H. B. Freire ◽  
Francisco A. A. Almeida ◽  
José A. D. Leite ◽  

Background: The treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) by sectioning the transverse carpal ligament (TCL) is not exempt from complications. Some nerve branches may be damaged by the incision. The aim of this study is to identify and map the TCL nerve endings, serving as a guide for sectioning this structure in a zone with less nerve ending density. Methods: Ten TCLs were obtained from fresh frozen cadavers. The TCLs were measured, divided into 3 equal bands (radial, central, and ulnar), and submitted to cryostat sectioning. The sections were subjected to immunofluorescence with the protein gene product (PGP) 9.5 and confocal microscopy analysis. Results: All the specimens contained type I and type IV mechanoreceptors. Neural elements occupied 0.695 ± 0.056% of the ligament area. The density of the neural elements was greater in the radial, followed by the ulnar and central bands, with 0.730 ± 0.083%, 0.686 ± 0.009%, and 0.669 ± 0.031%, respectively. Conclusion: The present findings suggest that the region with the least potential for neural element injury during TCL release is the central third near the transition with the ulnar third. When performed distally to proximally with a slight inclination from the radial to the ulnar, this release compromises the lowest nerve element density. Topographically, the proximal limit of the release is the distal wrist crease, while the distal limit is the intersection of Kaplan cardinal line and the axis of the third webspace.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Nayara Santos de Oliveira ◽  
Ana Beatriz Feijão de Lima ◽  
Juliana Carvalho Regino de Brito ◽  
Ayane Cristine Alves Sarmento ◽  
Ana Katherine Silveira Gonçalves ◽  

The ovulatory cycle has a significant influence on the microbial composition, according to the action of estrogen and progesterone on the stratified squamous epithelium, due to an increase in epithelial thickness, glycogen deposition, and influence on local immunology. The 16S rRNA gene amplification and pyrosequencing study demonstrated that healthy women have community state types (CST), classified as; type “L,” with a predominance of Lactobacillus crispatus, type II, with a predominance of Lactobacillus gasseri, type III, where Lactobacillus iners predominates, and type V with a predominance of Lactobacillus jensenii. Type IV does not identify lactobacilli but a heterogeneous population of bacteria. There seems to be a relationship between increased vaginal bacterial diversity and poverty of lactobacilli with the complaining of vaginal dryness. With menopause, there appears to be a reduction in lactobacilli associated with higher serum levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and lower estrogen levels. The evaluation of Gram-stained vaginal smears in postmenopause women must take into account the clinical-laboratory correlation. We should observe two meanly possibilities, atrophy with few bacterial morphotypes, without inflammatory, infiltrate (atrophy without inflammation), and atrophy with evident inflammatory infiltrate (atrophy with inflammation or atrophic vaginitis). The relationship between the microbiome and postmenopausal vulvovaginal symptoms seems to be related to the bacterial vaginal population. However, more robust studies are needed to confirm this impression.

Carolina Sanitá Tafner Ferreira ◽  
Camila Marconi ◽  
Cristina M. G. L. Parada ◽  
Jacques Ravel ◽  
Marcia Guimaraes da Silva

IntroductionSialidase activity in the cervicovaginal fluid (CVF) is associated with microscopic findings of bacterial vaginosis (BV). Sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene in vaginal samples has revealed that the majority of microscopic BV cases fit into vaginal community-state type IV (CST IV), which was recently named “molecular-BV.” Bacterial vaginosis-associated bacterial species, such as Gardnerella spp., may act as sources of CVF sialidases. These hydrolases lead to impairment of local immunity and enable bacterial adhesion to epithelial and biofilm formation. However, the impact of CVL sialidase on microbiota components and diversity remains unknown.ObjectiveTo assess if CVF sialidase activity is associated with changes in bacterial components of CST IV.MethodsOne hundred forty women were cross-sectionally enrolled. The presence of molecular-BV (CST IV) was assessed by V3–V4 16S rRNA sequencing (Illumina). Fluorometric assays were performed using 2-(4-methylumbelliferyl)-α-D-N-acetylneuraminic acid (MUAN) for measuring sialidase activity in CVF samples. Linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe) was performed to identify the differently enriched bacterial taxa in molecular-BV according to the status of CVF sialidase activity.ResultsForty-four participants (31.4%) had molecular-BV, of which 30 (68.2%) had sialidase activity at detectable levels. A total of 24 bacterial taxa were enriched in the presence of sialidase activity, while just two taxa were enriched in sialidase-negative samples.ConclusionSialidase activity in molecular-BV is associated with changes in bacterial components of the local microbiome. This association should be further investigated, since it may result in diminished local defenses against pathogens.

Vivian Ronquete ◽  
Alexandre Sigrist de Martin ◽  
Karin Zuim ◽  
Thais Machado de Carvalho Coutinho ◽  
Eduardo Fagury Videira Marceliano ◽  

Abstract Objective This study compared the ProTaper Next (PTN; Dentsply Sirona, Tulsa, Oklahoma, United States) and HyFlex EDM (HEDM; Coltene/Whaledent AG, Alstätten, Switzerland) systems using micro–computed tomography (CT). Materials and Methods Twenty-one mesial roots classified as Vertucci's type IV from extracted mandibular first molars with curvatures between 20 and 40 degrees were selected. The teeth were scanned using a micro-CT before and after root canal preparation by both systems, applied to the same root, in alternating canals. The following parameters were analyzed: canal centering, apical transportation, root canal diameter/root diameter. Results No statistically significant differences between both systems were observed for any of the assessed morphological parameters (p > 0.05). All canals presented diameter enlargement of more than 40% in relation to root diameter in the cervical and middle segments. No statistically significant difference was noted between the HEDM and PTN groups. The wear percentage for the HEDM group in the cervical and middle thirds were 49.66 ± 8.65 and 46.48 ± 14.29, respectively, and 51.02 ± 11.81 and 45.48 ± 10.79 for the PTN group, respectively. Conclusion Both systems displayed similar mandibular molar mesial canals preparation, with no differences noted for any of the assessed parameters. Both groups showed increased canal diameter in the cervical and middle thirds by more than 40%.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Bao Feng ◽  
Liebin Huang ◽  
Yu Liu ◽  
Yehang Chen ◽  
Haoyang Zhou ◽  

ObjectiveThis study aims to differentiate preoperative Borrmann type IV gastric cancer (GC) from primary gastric lymphoma (PGL) by transfer learning radiomics nomogram (TLRN) with whole slide images of GC as source domain data.Materials and MethodsThis study retrospectively enrolled 438 patients with histopathologic diagnoses of Borrmann type IV GC and PGL. They received CT examinations from three hospitals. Quantitative transfer learning features were extracted by the proposed transfer learning radiopathomic network and used to construct transfer learning radiomics signatures (TLRS). A TLRN, which integrates TLRS, clinical factors, and CT subjective findings, was developed by multivariate logistic regression. The diagnostic TLRN performance was assessed by clinical usefulness in the independent validation set.ResultsThe TLRN was built by TLRS and a high enhanced serosa sign, which showed good agreement by the calibration curve. The TLRN performance was superior to the clinical model and TLRS. Its areas under the curve (AUC) were 0.958 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.883–0.991), 0.867 (95% CI, 0.794–0.922), and 0.921 (95% CI, 0.860–0.960) in the internal and two external validation cohorts, respectively. Decision curve analysis (DCA) showed that the TLRN was better than any other model. TLRN has potential generalization ability, as shown in the stratification analysis.ConclusionsThe proposed TLRN based on gastric WSIs may help preoperatively differentiate PGL from Borrmann type IV GC.Borrmann type IV gastric cancer, primary gastric lymphoma, transfer learning, whole slide image, deep learning.

2022 ◽  
Jean-Philippe Corre ◽  
Dorian Obino ◽  
Pierre Nivoit ◽  
Aline Yatim ◽  
Taliah Schmitt ◽  

Meningococcal infections remain particularly difficult to treat. Despite antibiotic therapy, the state of the patients often rapidly deteriorates. Early clinical studies suggest that meningococci acquire a form of resistance to antibiotic treatments during infections. Taking advantage of a humanized animal model of infection, we confirm that adherent bacteria become highly resistant to antibiotic treatments as early as 3-6 hours post infection, although fully sensitive in vitro. Within this time frame, meningococci adhere to the endothelium via their type IV pili, proliferate and eventually fill the vessel lumen. Using intravital imaging, we show that rapidly upon infection blood flow is dramatically decreased, thus limiting antibiotic access to infected vessels. Concomitantly, fibrin is deposited inside infected vessels in proximity to bacterial aggregates. Pharmacologically impairing thrombin generation by inhibiting Factor X activity not only improves blood flow in infected vessels, but also enhances the efficacy of the antibiotic treatment. Our results indicate that the combined administration of anticoagulants together with antibiotics might represent a therapeutic approach to treat meningococcal sepsis more efficiently.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
S. Ottavio Tomasi ◽  
Giuseppe Emmanuele Umana ◽  
Gianluca Scalia ◽  
Giuseppe Raudino ◽  
Francesca Graziano ◽  

Introduction: In this microneurosurgical and anatomical study, we characterized the superficial anastomosing veins of the human brain cortex in human specimens.Material and Methods: We used 21 brain preparations fixed in formalin (5%) that showed no pathological changes and came from the autopsy sections. The superficial veins were dissected out of the arachnoid with the aid of a surgical microscope.Results: We dissected nine female and 12 male brain specimens, with an average age of 71 ± 11 years (range 51–88 years). We classified the superficial veins in five types: (I) the vein of Trolard as the dominat vein; (II) the vein of Labbé as the dominant vein; (III) a dominant sylvian vein group, and the veins of Trolard and Labbé nonexistent or only rudimentary present without contact to the Sylvian vein group; (IV) very weak sylvian veins with the veins of Trolard and Labbé codominant; and V) direct connection of Trolard and Labbé bypassing the Sylvian vein group. The vein of Trolard was dominant (Type I) in 21.4% and the vein of Labbé (Type II) in 16.7%. A dominant sylvian vein group (Type III) was found in 42.9%. Type IV and Type V were found in 14.3 and 4.7% respectively.Conclusion: No systematic description or numerical distribution of the superior anastomotic vein (V. Trolard) and inferior anastomotic vein (V. Labbé) has been found in the existing literature. This study aimed to fill this gap in current literature and provide data to neurosurgeons for the practical planning of surgical approaches.

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