rapid assessment
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2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Partamin Manalai ◽  
Sheena Currie ◽  
Massoma Jafari ◽  
Nasratullah Ansari ◽  
Hannah Tappis ◽  

Abstract Background Midwives are the key skilled birth attendants in Afghanistan. Rapid assessment of public and private midwifery education schools was conducted in 2017 to examine compliance with national educational standards. The aim was to assess midwifery education to inform Afghanistan Nurses and Midwives Council and other stakeholders on priorities for improving quality of midwifery education. Methods A cross-sectional assessment of midwifery schools was conducted from September 12–December 17, 2017. The Midwifery Education Rapid Assessment Tool was used to assess 29 midwifery programs related to infrastructure, management, teachers, preceptors, clinical practice sites, curriculum and students. A purposive sample of six Institute of Health Sciences schools, seven Community Midwifery Education schools and 16 private midwifery schools was used. Participants were midwifery school staff, students and clinical preceptors. Results Libraries were available in 28/29 (97%) schools, active skills labs in 20/29 (69%), childbirth simulators in 17/29 (59%) and newborn resuscitation models in 28/29 (97%). School managers were midwives in 21/29 (72%) schools. Median numbers of students per teacher and students per preceptor were 8 (range 2–50) and 6 (range 2–20). There were insufficient numbers of teachers practicing midwifery (132/163; 81%), trained in teaching skills (113/163; 69%) and trained in emergency obstetric and newborn care (88/163; 54%). There was an average of 13 students at clinical sites in each shift. Students managed an average of 15 births independently during their training, while 40 births are required. Twenty-four percent (7/29) of schools used the national 2015 curriculum alone or combined with an older one. Ninety-one percent (633/697) of students reported access to clinical sites and skills labs. Students mentioned, however, insufficient clinical practice due to low case-loads in clinical sites, lack of education materials, transport facilities and disrespect from school teachers, preceptors and clinical site providers as challenges. Conclusions Positive findings included availability of required infrastructure, amenities, approved curricula in 7 of the 29 midwifery schools, appropriate clinical sites and students’ commitment to work as midwives upon graduation. Gaps identified were use of different often outdated curricula, inadequate clinical practice, underqualified teachers and preceptors and failure to graduate all students with sufficient skills such as independently having supported 40 births.

Forests ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 124
Carlos Ivan Briones-Herrera ◽  
Daniel José Vega-Nieva ◽  
Jaime Briseño-Reyes ◽  
Norma Angélica Monjarás-Vega ◽  
Pablito Marcelo López-Serrano ◽  

Context and Background. Active fires have the potential to provide early estimates of fire perimeters, but there is a lack of information about the best active fire aggregation distances and how they can vary between fuel types, particularly in large areas of study under diverse climatic conditions. Objectives. The current study aimed at analyzing the effect of aggregation distances for mapping fire perimeters from active fires for contrasting fuel types and regions in Mexico. Materials and Methods. Detections of MODIS and VIIRS active fires from the period 2012–2018 were used to obtain perimeters of aggregated active fires (AGAF) at four aggregation distances (750, 1000, 1125, and 1500 m). AGAF perimeters were compared against MODIS MCD64A1 burned area for a total of 24 fuel types and regions covering all the forest area of Mexico. Results/findings. Optimum aggregation distances varied between fuel types and regions, with the longest aggregation distances observed for the most arid regions and fuel types dominated by shrubs and grasslands. Lowest aggregation distances were obtained in the regions and fuel types with the densest forest canopy and more humid climate. Purpose/Novelty. To our best knowledge, this study is the first to analyze the effect of fuel type on the optimum aggregation distance for mapping fire perimeters directly from aggregated active fires. The methodology presented here can be used operationally in Mexico and elsewhere, by accounting for fuel-specific aggregation distances, for improving rapid estimates of fire perimeters. These early fire perimeters could be potentially available in near-real time (at every satellite pass with a 12 h latency) in operational fire monitoring GIS systems to support rapid assessment of fire progression and fire suppression planning.

Tafadzwa Dzinamarira ◽  
Grant Murewanhema ◽  
Patrick Gad Iradukunda ◽  
Roda Madziva ◽  
Helena Herrera ◽  

Wastewater-based epidemiology for SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection in wastewater is desirable for understanding COVID-19 in settings where financial resources and diagnostic facilities for mass individual testing are severely limited. We conducted a rapid review to map research evidence on the utilization of SARS-CoV-2 wastewater surveillance in Africa. We searched PubMed, Google Scholar, and the World Health Organization library databases for relevant reports, reviews, and primary observational studies. Eight studies met the inclusion criteria. Narrative synthesis of the findings from included primary studies revealed the testing methodologies utilized and that detected amount of SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA correlated with the number of new cases in the studied areas. The included reviews revealed the epidemiological significance and environmental risks of SARS-CoV-2 wastewater. Wastewater surveillance data at the community level can be leveraged for the rapid assessment of emerging threats and aid pandemic preparedness. Our rapid review revealed a glaring gap in the primary literature on SARS-CoV-2 wastewater surveillance on the continent, and accelerated and adequate investment into research is urgently needed to address this gap.

Jenny Callender ◽  
Pete Bridge ◽  
Flora Al-Samarraie ◽  
Daniel Blair

Abstract Introduction: The impact of COVID-19 social restrictions on mental wellbeing of health professional students during placement is largely unknown. Conventional survey methods do not capture emotional fluctuations. Increasing use of smartphones suggests short message service (SMS) functionality could provide easy, rapid data. This project tested the feasibility and validity of gathering data on Therapeutic Radiography student mental wellbeing during clinical placement via emoji and SMS. Methods: Participants provided anonymous daily emoji responses via WhatsApp to a dedicated mobile phone. Additional weekly prompts sought textual responses indicating factors impacting on wellbeing. A short anonymous online survey validated responses and provided feedback on the method. Results: Participants (n = 15) provided 254 daily responses using 108 different emoji; these triangulated with weekly textual responses. Feedback concerning the method was positive. ‘Happy’ emoji were used most frequently; social interaction and fatigue were important wellbeing factors. Anonymity and opportunity to feedback via SMS were received positively; ease and rapidity of response engendered engagement throughout the 3-week study. Conclusions: The use of emoji for rapid assessment of cohort mental wellbeing is valid and potentially useful alongside more formal evaluation and support strategies. Capturing simple wellbeing responses from a cohort may facilitate the organisation of timely support interventions.

2022 ◽  
Emre Brookes ◽  
Mattia Rocco

Abstract Recent spectacular advances by AI programs in 3D structure predictions from protein sequences have revolutionized the field in terms of accuracy and speed. The resulting "folding frenzy" has already produced predicted protein structure databases for the entire human and other organisms' proteomes. However, rapidly ascertaining a predicted structure's reliability based on measured properties in solution should be considered. Shape-sensitive hydrodynamic parameters such as the diffusion and sedimentation coefficients (D0t(20,w),s0(20,w)) and the intrinsic viscosity ([η]) can provide a rapid assessment of the overall structure likeliness, and SAXS would yield the structure-related pair-wise distance distribution function p(r) vs. r. Using the extensively validated UltraScan SOlution MOdeler (US-SOMO) suite we have calculated from the AlphaFold structures the corresponding D0t(20,w), s0(20,w), [η], p(r) vs. r, and other parameters. Circular dichroism spectra were also computed. The resulting US-SOMO-AF database should aid in rapidly evaluating the consistency in solution of AlphaFold predicted protein structures.

ZooKeys ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 1081 ◽  
pp. 35-87
Juan Pablo Reyes-Puig ◽  
Carolina Reyes-Puig ◽  
Daniela Franco-Mena ◽  
Lou Jost ◽  
Mario H. Yánez-Muñoz

We present the results of herpetological surveys in two adjacent mountains where the EcoMinga Foundation protects the cloud forest in the Upper Rio Pastaza watershed, in the Llanganates Sangay Ecological Corridor in Ecuador. A rapid assessment of the amphibian communities of the study sites reveals a diverse and heterogeneous composition, dominated by terrestrial frogs from the genus Pristimantis. We also identify a cryptic diversity with a significant number of candidate new species. We describe two new species of terrestrial frogs of the genus Pristimantis. Pristimantis maryanneaesp. nov. is characterised by not having tympanum externally visible and having 2–3 subconical tubercles in the upper eyelid; and Pristimantis burtoniorumsp. nov. is characterised by the presence of red colouration in hidden surfaces of the hind-limbs, tubercles on the upper eyelid, interorbital tubercle and a row of rounded tubercles along the snout to the tip and a pale red venter with dark brown mottled pattern. Our samples from the two Reserves do not share species between them, so the proportion of shared species seems to be relatively low. In addition, we highlight the importance of updating the knowledge of amphibians that are restricted to this important conservation region and comment about the threats and composition of the amphibian communities on the eastern slopes of the Upper Rio Pastaza watershed.

Development ◽  
2022 ◽  
E. C. Kugler ◽  
J. Frost ◽  
V. Silva ◽  
K. Plant ◽  
K. Chhabria ◽  

Zebrafish transgenic lines and light sheet fluorescence microscopy allow in-depth insights into three-dimensional vascular development in vivo. However, quantification of the zebrafish cerebral vasculature in 3D remains highly challenging. Here, we describe and test an image analysis workflow for 3D quantification of the total or regional zebrafish brain vasculature, called zebrafish vasculature quantification “ZVQ”. It provides the first landmark- or object-based vascular inter-sample registration of the zebrafish cerebral vasculature, producing Population Average Maps allowing rapid assessment of intra- and inter-group vascular anatomy. ZVQ also extracts a range of quantitative vascular parameters from a user-specified Region of Interest including volume, surface area, density, branching points, length, radius, and complexity. Application of ZVQ to thirteen experimental conditions, including embryonic development, pharmacological manipulations and morpholino induced gene knockdown, shows ZVQ is robust, allows extraction of biologically relevant information and quantification of vascular alteration, and can provide novel insights into vascular biology. To allow dissemination, the code for quantification, a graphical user interface, and workflow documentation are provided. Together, ZVQ provides the first open-source quantitative approach to assess the 3D cerebrovascular architecture in zebrafish.

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