humid climate
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2022 ◽  
Vol 262 ◽  
pp. 107432
Saseendran S. Anapalli ◽  
Srinivasa R. Pinnamaneni ◽  
Krishna N. Reddy ◽  
Ruixiu Sui ◽  
Gurbir Singh

2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (2) ◽  
pp. 775-796
Paulo Cesar Batista de Farias ◽  
Leilson Rocha Bezerra ◽  
Alex Lopes da Silva ◽  
Romilda Rodrigues do Nascimento ◽  

Forage sorghum is a crop that can be planted in semiarid regions, due to its greater adaptability to dry climate environments, and can replace maize in these regions, which are often unsuitable for its production. Thus, the objective of the study was to evaluate the structural, morphological and nutritional characteristics of 23 sorghum hybrids forage cultivated in rainfed conditions, planted in different climate conditions, comparing the hybrids, in order to determine what produces the best in the climatic conditions of the explored region, and also to indicate whether this crop can be planted as a replacement for maize in environments not suitable for planting it. The research was conducted in climate BSh in the Municipality of Alvorada do Gurgueia, and climate Aw in the Municipality of Bom Jesus, both in the state of Piauí from 2014 to 2015. Each trial consisted of 20 experimental forage sorghum hybrids [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], and three commercial hybrids. A randomized block design was used, with three replications in a factorial scheme (2 × 23). The growth characteristics determined were hybrid × climate interaction for the variables plant height, lodging and leaf/stem ratio. For the variable number of tillers, there was a significant difference only between hybrids. There was no difference between hybrids only for the lodging variable of climate Aw. The other variables showed a difference in all hybrids evaluated. There was an interaction for production of dead matter and total dry forage mass between the different environments and hybrids evaluated. For leaf production, there was an effect only for the different environments. For the chemical characteristics, there was an interaction for all variables analyzed between the different environments and hybrids evaluated. The semi-arid region of the State of Piauí, climate BSh which presents a high climatic risk for maize cultivation, proved to be favorable for forage sorghum production. The forage sorghum also presented agronomic characteristics similar to those found in semi humid climate Aw, a favorable region for maize cultivation. In addition, the tested hybrids showed good chemical characteristics, so the BSh climate has great exploratory potential for the cultivation of forage sorghum.

Geothermics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 99 ◽  
pp. 102313
Shams Forruque Ahmed ◽  
M.M.K. Khan ◽  
M.T.O. Amanullah ◽  
M.G. Rasul ◽  
N.M.S. Hassan

Forests ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 124
Carlos Ivan Briones-Herrera ◽  
Daniel José Vega-Nieva ◽  
Jaime Briseño-Reyes ◽  
Norma Angélica Monjarás-Vega ◽  
Pablito Marcelo López-Serrano ◽  

Context and Background. Active fires have the potential to provide early estimates of fire perimeters, but there is a lack of information about the best active fire aggregation distances and how they can vary between fuel types, particularly in large areas of study under diverse climatic conditions. Objectives. The current study aimed at analyzing the effect of aggregation distances for mapping fire perimeters from active fires for contrasting fuel types and regions in Mexico. Materials and Methods. Detections of MODIS and VIIRS active fires from the period 2012–2018 were used to obtain perimeters of aggregated active fires (AGAF) at four aggregation distances (750, 1000, 1125, and 1500 m). AGAF perimeters were compared against MODIS MCD64A1 burned area for a total of 24 fuel types and regions covering all the forest area of Mexico. Results/findings. Optimum aggregation distances varied between fuel types and regions, with the longest aggregation distances observed for the most arid regions and fuel types dominated by shrubs and grasslands. Lowest aggregation distances were obtained in the regions and fuel types with the densest forest canopy and more humid climate. Purpose/Novelty. To our best knowledge, this study is the first to analyze the effect of fuel type on the optimum aggregation distance for mapping fire perimeters directly from aggregated active fires. The methodology presented here can be used operationally in Mexico and elsewhere, by accounting for fuel-specific aggregation distances, for improving rapid estimates of fire perimeters. These early fire perimeters could be potentially available in near-real time (at every satellite pass with a 12 h latency) in operational fire monitoring GIS systems to support rapid assessment of fire progression and fire suppression planning.

2022 ◽  
Vol 92 (1) ◽  
pp. 32-49
Jonathan Ledesma ◽  
Cecilia E. Del Papa ◽  
Patricio Payrola

Abstract The Puna–Altiplano Plateau of the Central Andes is the second-highest plateau in the world (after Tibet), with a mean elevation of 4000 m.a.s.l. and an arid to hyperarid climate. Uplift of the Puna–Altiplano Plateau has affected lower-level atmospheric circulation, acting as a barrier to humid easterly winds from the Amazon basin and favoring an across-strike precipitation gradient resulting in a humid climate towards the east of the plateau and an arid to hyperarid climate in the orogen's interior. In the modern climate, the Bolivian High anticyclone regulates upper troposphere circulation, but little is known about the high-altitude tropospheric circulation of the past. This work focuses on the eolian record of the San Antonio de los Cobres basin along the eastern border of the Puna Plateau, NW Argentina, with the aim of analyzing its origin and thus elucidating the late Miocene winds. The eolian deposits are constrained by 7.8 Ma (K/Ar and U/Pb) and 6.4 Ma (U/Pb) ignimbrites at the nearly basal and upper contacts, respectively. Based on stratigraphic, sedimentological, and provenance analysis of the eolian units, we have identified three main facies associations (FAs): FA1) cross-stratified sandstones with large- to small-scale tabular, planar cross-bedding and with trough cross-stratification; FA2) sandstones with planar to low-angle stratification associated with thinly laminated ripple sandstone strata; FA3) medium- to coarse-grained massive sandstones associated with pebbly to bouldery, matrix-supported conglomerates and clast-supported conglomerates. The lateral and vertical facies assemblages indicate a dune field confined to topographic depressions dominated by transverse dunes with straight and sinuous crestlines that laterally grade into sandsheets associated with ephemeral streams. Paleoflows, lithotypes, and grain-size determinations indicate a persistent north-northwest provenance and wind velocities of 24–38 km/h (with maximum velocities of 55–75 km/h). The results of our analysis coupled with data from previous studies indicates that, for at least the last ca. 8 Myr, the winds have been blowing constantly from the north-northwest with an intensity similar to the present. This implies that the paleo-atmospheric circulation had a similar pattern to the present-day one. Therefore, we conclude that the upper-troposphere circulation in the Puna Plateau of NW Argentina was already regulated by the Bolivian High anticyclone during the Miocene, generating constant north-northwesterly winds.

Youming Shen ◽  
Jianyi Zhang ◽  
Jiyun Nie ◽  
Hui Zhang ◽  
Syed Asim Shah Bacha

Abstract Microbes on fresh apples are closely associated with fruit disease, preservation and quality control. Investigation into the microbial communities on apples from different producing regions could reveal the microbial specificity and help disease prevention and quality control. In this paper, the apple surface microbes of forty-four samples from two main Chinese apple-producing regions, Bohai Bay (BHB) and the Loess Plateau (LP), were investigated by sequencing fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and bacterial 16S rRNA hypervariable sequences. BHB and LP apples contained significantly different bacterial and fungal communities. BHB apples had a higher fungal diversity than LP apples. A total of 102 different fungal and bacterial taxonomies were obtained between apples from the two regions, in which 24 genera were predominant. BHB apples had higher phytopathogenic fungal genera, such as Tilletiopsis, Acremonium, Candida and Phoma, indicating the higher phytopathogenic risks of apples from the humid climate of the BHB region. LP apples contained more bacterial genera identified as gut microbes, indicating the potential risks of contaminating apples with foodborne pathogens in the arid environment of the LP. This study highlighted the environment-oriented microbial specificity on apples from two main apple-producing regions, and provided a basis for further investigation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 54 (1) ◽  
Victória Pontes Rocha ◽  
Lina Raquel Santos Araújo ◽  
Ingrid Barbosa de Mendonça ◽  
Lucas Paz Martins ◽  
Gabriel Gobira de Alcântara Araújo ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Lakshmi Visakha Vishnubhotla ◽  
Sornambiga Shanmugam ◽  
Srinivas Tadepalli

PurposeEnergy codes for residential buildings in India prescribe design guidelines for each climate zone. However, these guidelines are broad and similar for different cities under the same zone overlooking climatic variations due to altitude, location and other geographical factors.Design/methodology/approachTo develop strategies addressing the city-specific requirements, a stepwise simulation approach was used. Integrated Environmental Solutions–Virtual Environment (IES-VE) was used to create a prototype of a singly detached residence. The applicability of strategies is studied during the day and night times. Optimum orientation, the thickness of insulation, Window–Wall Ratio, the impact of cross-ventilation and shading depth are determined for two cities – Tiruchirappalli and Coimbatore under the warm-humid climate zone of India.FindingsResults indicate that optimum insulation thickness and WWR vary between both cities during daytime and night time. In Tiruchirappalli, roof and wall insulation using polyurethane board (100 mm) and foam concrete (25 mm) offers a maximum reduction of 2.2°C indoors. Foam concrete (25 mm) insulation for roof and expanded polystyrene (25 mm) for walls reduce a maximum of 2.6°C during daytime in Coimbatore. Further, night ventilation with 20% WWR allows an average decrease of 0.5–0.6°C in triply exposed spaces facing the South. The use of a 2'0" depth shading device shows a maximum reduction of 0.1–0.3°C.Originality/valueThe contribution of this work lies in developing city-specific inputs presenting the advantage of easy replicability for other cities in the Indian context.

Vinod T. Atkari ◽  
Krantidip R. Pawar ◽  
Sujit C. Patil

The moisture content of grains, oxygen and carbon dioxide concentration in storage environment affects the storage life of food grains. The moisture content affects on storability of food grains severely, hence the storage structures must be provided with sufficient protection from moisture exchange between grain and atmosphere. The insect and pests grows very fast in presence of oxygen and moisture in the storage environment. The humid climate provides favorable conditions to moulds and insects to grow in most of the food grains and oilseeds. The grains exposed to these favorable environment further not useful for human consumptions. Many harmful chemicals like aflatoxins are formed in oilseeds and cereals. The emerging hermatic storage is highly effective technology to prevent the spoilage of grains without use of any harmful fumigants and chemicals, hence it is popularly known as organic storage technology. In this technology the flow of oxygen and water from external environment is fully controlled by impermeable, triple layer hermatic plastic bags.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-22
Elco Luijendijk

Abstract. The extent to which groundwater flow affects drainage density and erosion has long been debated but is still uncertain. Here, I present a new hybrid analytical and numerical model that simulates groundwater flow, overland flow, hillslope erosion and stream incision. The model is used to explore the relation between groundwater flow and the incision and persistence of streams for a set of parameters that represent average humid climate conditions. The results show that transmissivity and groundwater flow exert a strong control on drainage density. High transmissivity results in low drainage density and high incision rates (and vice versa), with drainage density varying roughly linearly with transmissivity. The model evolves by a process that is defined here as groundwater capture, whereby streams with a higher rate of incision draw the water table below neighbouring streams, which subsequently run dry and stop incising. This process is less efficient in models with low transmissivity due to the association between low transmissivity and high water table gradients. A comparison of different parameters shows that drainage density is most sensitive to transmissivity, followed by parameters that govern the initial slope and base level. The results agree with field data that show a negative correlation between transmissivity and drainage density. These results imply that permeability and transmissivity exert a strong control on drainage density, stream incision and landscape evolution. Thus, models of landscape evolution may need to explicitly include groundwater flow.

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