Midwives are the key skilled birth attendants in Afghanistan. Rapid assessment of public and private midwifery education schools was conducted in 2017 to examine compliance with national educational standards. The aim was to assess midwifery education to inform Afghanistan Nurses and Midwives Council and other stakeholders on priorities for improving quality of midwifery education.
A cross-sectional assessment of midwifery schools was conducted from September 12–December 17, 2017. The Midwifery Education Rapid Assessment Tool was used to assess 29 midwifery programs related to infrastructure, management, teachers, preceptors, clinical practice sites, curriculum and students. A purposive sample of six Institute of Health Sciences schools, seven Community Midwifery Education schools and 16 private midwifery schools was used. Participants were midwifery school staff, students and clinical preceptors.
Libraries were available in 28/29 (97%) schools, active skills labs in 20/29 (69%), childbirth simulators in 17/29 (59%) and newborn resuscitation models in 28/29 (97%). School managers were midwives in 21/29 (72%) schools. Median numbers of students per teacher and students per preceptor were 8 (range 2–50) and 6 (range 2–20). There were insufficient numbers of teachers practicing midwifery (132/163; 81%), trained in teaching skills (113/163; 69%) and trained in emergency obstetric and newborn care (88/163; 54%). There was an average of 13 students at clinical sites in each shift. Students managed an average of 15 births independently during their training, while 40 births are required. Twenty-four percent (7/29) of schools used the national 2015 curriculum alone or combined with an older one. Ninety-one percent (633/697) of students reported access to clinical sites and skills labs. Students mentioned, however, insufficient clinical practice due to low case-loads in clinical sites, lack of education materials, transport facilities and disrespect from school teachers, preceptors and clinical site providers as challenges.
Positive findings included availability of required infrastructure, amenities, approved curricula in 7 of the 29 midwifery schools, appropriate clinical sites and students’ commitment to work as midwives upon graduation. Gaps identified were use of different often outdated curricula, inadequate clinical practice, underqualified teachers and preceptors and failure to graduate all students with sufficient skills such as independently having supported 40 births.
Essential newborn care (ENC) is a package of interventions which should be provided for every newborn baby regardless of body size or place of delivery immediately after birth and should be continued for at least the seven days that follows. Even though Ethiopia has endorsed the implementation of ENC, as other many counties, it has been challenged. This study was conducted to measure the level of essential newborn care practice and identify health facility level attributes for consistent delivery of ENC services by health care providers.
This study employed a retrospective cross-sectional study design in 425 facilities. Descriptive statistics were formulated and presented in tables. Binary logistic regression was employed to assess the statistical association between the outcome variable and the independent variables. All variables with p < 0.2 in the bivariate analysis were identified as candidate variables. Then, multiple logistic regression analysis was performed using candidate variables to determine statistically significant predictors of the consistent delivery of ENC by adjusting for possible confounders.
A total of 273, (64.2%), of facilities demonstrated consistent delivery of ENC. Five factors—availability of essential obstetrics drugs in delivery rooms, high community score card (CSC) performances, availability of maternity waiting homes, consistent partograph use, and availability of women-friendly delivery services were included in the model. The strongest predictor of consistent delivery of essential newborn care (CD-ENC) was consistent partograph use, recording an odds ratio of 2.66 (AOR = 2.66, 95%CI: 1.71, 4.13). Similarly, providing women-friendly services was strongly associated with increased likelihood of exhibiting CD-ENC. Furthermore, facilities with essential obstetric drugs had 1.88 (AOR = 1.88, 95%CI: 1.15, 3.08) times higher odds of exhibiting consistent delivery of ENC.
The delivery of essential newborn care depends on both health provider and facility manager actions and availability of platforms to streamline relationships between the clients and health facility management.
Objective: To study the role of a nurses' aide in the care for newborns weighing between 1500 and 2000 g at birth in a low resource setting.
Study Design: Observational.
Setting: The General hospital in 1994-95, in a public sector, located in a remote area in India
Intervention: A female ward assistant with seven years of schooling trained, on-the-job, to keep babies warm, initiate maternal breastfeeding, and to detect rapid breathing. The nursing staff from the pediatric ward supervised her performance. A separate "warm room" appropriately heated for preterm and sick babies became a makeshift nursery. The nursing staff administered enteral feeding, oxygen, and antibiotics. Services of the resident doctors or general duty medical officers were not available.
Results: The survival rate was nearly 100% for babies with birthweights between 1,500 and 2,000 g (none referred out).
Conclusions: A nurses' aide may facilitate the delivery of special care for newborns where nursing personnel are grossly inadequate and saving babies weighing between 1,500 and 2,000 g may need minimal inputs. It may be worthwhile to target 1,500 and 2,000 g birthweight categories even when resources are meager.
What is already known about this subject?
Low resource settings face staff shortages, especially nursing staff.
Health workers with midwifery skills can deliver nearly 90% of essential care services for maternal and neonatal health.
A substantial proportion of neonatal deaths occur among moderately low birth weight babies.
What does this study add?
It is possible to train a semi-literate person to facilitate early breastfeeding and to keep a baby warm.
A large proportion of deaths among babies with birthweight ranging from 1500 to 2000 g are preventable with meager resources.
How might this impact on clinical practice or future developments?
The facilities facing shortage of nursing staff in low resource settings, may employ nurses’ aide to deliver basic newborn care.
In low and middle-income countries, nurses and midwives are the frontline healthcare workers in obstetric care. Insights into experiences of these healthcare workers in managing obstetric emergencies are critical for improving the quality of care. This article presents such insights, from the nurses and midwives working in Rwandan district hospitals, who reflected on their experiences of managing the most common birth-related complications; postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) and newborn asphyxia. Rwanda has made remarkable progress in obstetric care. However, challenges remain in the provision of high-quality basic emergency obstetric and newborn care (BEmONC). This study is a qualitative part of a broader research project about implementation of an mLearning and mHealth decision support tool in BEmONC services in Rwanda.
In this exploratory qualitative aspect of the research, four focus group discussions (FGDs) with 26 nurses and midwives from two district hospitals in Rwanda were conducted. Each FGD was made up of two parts. The first part focused on the participants’ reflections on the research results (from the previous study), while the second part explored their experiences of delivering obstetric care services. The research results included: survey results reflecting their knowledge and skills of PPH management and of neonatal resuscitation (NR); and findings from a six-month record review of PPH management and NR outcomes, from the district hospitals under study. Data were analyzed using hybrid thematic analysis.
The analysis revealed three main themes: (1) reflections to the baseline research results, (2) self-reflection on the current practices, and (3) contextual factors influencing the delivery of BEmONC services. Nurses and midwives felt that the presented findings were a true reflection of the reality and offered diverse explanations for the results. The participants’ narratives of lived experiences of providing BEmONC services are also presented.
The insights of nurses and midwives regarding the management of birth-related complications revealed multi-faceted factors that influence the quality of their obstetric care. Even though the study was focused on PPH management and NR, the resulting recommendations to improve quality of care could benefit the broader field of maternal and child health, particularly in low and middle-income countries.
AbstractStrengthening health systems to provide equitable, sustainable health care has been identified as essential for improving maternal and reproductive health. Many donors and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have contributed to undermining health system strengthening, however, through adhering to what Swidler and Watkins call the “sustainability doctrine,” policies that prioritize time-limited, targeted interventions best suited for short-term funding streams, rather than the long-term needs of local populations. This chapter presents ethnographic data from semi-structured and key informant interviews with 16 policymakers and NGO directors in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania from 2011 to 2012. I illustrate how sustainability doctrine policies were put into practice, and how they have persisted, despite their shortcomings, using examples of donor-prioritized maternal healthcare initiatives in Tanzania rolled-out several years apart: prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) and basic emergency obstetric and newborn care (BEmONC) programs in the late 2000s, and more recent efforts to implement respectful maternity care (RMC) programs. I focus on several issues informants identified as crippling efforts to build strong health systems, particularly the internal brain drain of healthcare workers from the public sector to higher-paying NGO jobs, and the prioritization of types of programs donors believed could be sustained after the funding period ended, specifically trainings and workshops. I describe how despite these issues, international organizations still design and implement less effective programs that often fail to account for local circumstances in their efforts to solve some of the more intractable health issues facing Tanzania today, in particular, the country’s stagnating maternal mortality rate. In this chapter, I argue that practices promoted and implemented under the guise of “sustainability” in policy papers and reports generated by donors paradoxically contribute to health system precarity in Tanzania.
ABSTRACT Objectives: to evaluate the effect of educational video on newborn care to increase the knowledge of pregnant, postpartum, and family members. Methods: a quasi-experimental study, with pre-intervention and post-intervention evaluation with a single group. Fifty-eight pregnant, postpartum, and family members treated in basic health units and a hospital in Ceará, Brazil, participated. The study used the McNemar and binomial tests for the analysis. Results: after the intervention, there was an increase in the frequency of hits, from 70.82% to 92.97%. Most of the questions presented a significant increase of hits (p < 0.05) with an emphasis on sleeping position, drying of clothes, free demand for breastfeeding, and things to avoid (such as accessories in the sleeping place and talc in diaper change). Conclusions: the educational video was effective to participants in acquiring knowledge on the care of newborns and can assist in health education activities carried out by nurses.
Background: A Community-Based Essential Newborn Care is a national initiative that incorporates a newborn care program into the continuum of maternal and child health care through enhancing community participation to reduce child morbidity and mortality and encourage healthy growth and development. This study aimed at assessing the level of Community-Based Essential Newborn Care service uptake and its associated factors among rural women in the Guraghe zone, Southern Ethiopia, 2020. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the rural districts of Southern Ethiopia, from 1 to 31 May 2020. A multistage sampling technique was applied. Using a systematic random sampling technique, a total of 818 respondents were selected. The data collected by a pretested structured questionnaire were entered into EpiData 3.1 and exported to the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (Version 23) for analysis. To identify significant predictors of Community-Based Essential Newborn Care utilization, a multivariable logistic regression analysis was fitted. Adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were used to estimate the strength of associations, and statistical significance was declared at a p value <0.05. Results: One-third, 269 (33.1%) (95% confidence interval = 30.0–36.2), of women and their newborns got the entire packages of the Community-Based Essential Newborn Care program. Desire on the last pregnancy (adjusted odds ratio = 2.66, 95% confidence interval = 1.56–4.51), birth preparedness and complication readiness plan (adjusted odds ratio = 4.82, 95% confidence interval = 3.26–7.12), timing of the postpartum visit (adjusted odds ratio = 3,56, 95% confidence interval = 2.00–6.34), attending monthly pregnant women conference (adjusted odds ratio = 3.01, 95% confidence interval = 1.99–4.57), and being a certified model household (adjusted odds ratio = 1.88, 95% confidence interval = 1.24–2.85) were identified as key predictors of Community-Based Essential Newborn Care utilization. Conclusion: The uptake of the full Community-Based Essential Newborn Care packages in the study area was low. Health care providers at the health institution and community level should give due emphasis to improve contraceptive service delivery. Besides, health extension workers at the community level should work on providing immediate postpartum visits, creating model households, and strengthening pregnant women conferences.