heart surgery
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2022 ◽  
Vol 271 ◽  
pp. 106-116
Maj Stenmark ◽  
Edin Omerbašić ◽  
Måns Magnusson ◽  
Viktor Andersson ◽  
Martin Abrahamsson ◽  

Ahmed Ibrahim Ahmed ◽  
Yushui Han ◽  
Amjad M. Ahmed ◽  
Nadeen N. Faza ◽  
Erin D. Michos ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 30 (1) ◽  
Malene S. Enevoldsen ◽  
Per Hostrup Nielsen ◽  
J. Michael Hasenkam

Abstract Background To assess the achieved risk and benefits of inserting temporary epicardial pacemaker electrodes after open-heart surgery for potential treatment of postoperative cardiac arrhythmias, and to investigate the extent of its use in clinical practice. Main text A systematic search was conducted in PubMed and repeated in Embase and Scopus using the PRISMA guidelines. The search identified 905 studies and resulted in 12 included studies, where the type of surgery, study design, total number of included patients, number of patients having temporary pacemaker electrodes inserted, number of patients requiring temporary pacing, primary reason for pacing, significant factors predicting temporary pacing, registered complications and study conclusion were assessed. Eight papers concluded that routine insertion of temporary pacemaker electrodes in all postoperative patients is unnecessary. One paper concluded that they should always be inserted, while three papers concluded that pacing is useful in the postoperative period, but did not recommend a frequency of which they should be inserted. Conclusions The literature suggests that the subgroup of younger otherwise healthy patients without preoperative arrhythmia having isolated coronary artery bypass grafting surgery or single valve surgery should not routinely have temporary pacemaker electrodes inserted.

Giuseppe Lapergola ◽  
Alessandro Graziosi ◽  
Ebe D’Adamo ◽  
Patrizia Brindisino ◽  
Mariangela Ferrari ◽  

Abstract Recent advances in perioperative management of adult and pediatric patients requiring open heart surgery (OHS) and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) for cardiac and/or congenital heart diseases repair allowed a significant reduction in the mortality rate. Conversely morbidity rate pattern has a flat trend. Perioperative period is crucial since OHS and CPB are widely accepted as a deliberate hypoxic-ischemic reperfusion damage representing the cost to pay at a time when standard of care monitoring procedures can be silent or unavailable. In this respect, the measurement of neuro-biomarkers (NB), able to detect at early stage perioperative brain damage could be especially useful. In the last decade, among a series of NB, S100B protein has been investigated. After the first promising results, supporting the usefulness of the protein as predictor of short/long term adverse neurological outcome, the protein has been progressively abandoned due to a series of limitations. In the present review we offer an up-dated overview of the main S100B pros and cons in the peri-operative monitoring of adult and pediatric patients.

2022 ◽  
Vol Publish Ahead of Print ◽  
Elisa Mikus ◽  
Simone Calvi ◽  
Alberto Albertini ◽  
Alberto Tripodi ◽  
Fabio Zucchetta ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
Kevin M. Blum ◽  
Jacob C. Zbinden ◽  
Abhay B. Ramachandra ◽  
Stephanie E. Lindsey ◽  
Jason M. Szafron ◽  

Abstract Background Tissue-engineered vascular grafts (TEVGs) have the potential to advance the surgical management of infants and children requiring congenital heart surgery by creating functional vascular conduits with growth capacity. Methods Herein, we used an integrative computational-experimental approach to elucidate the natural history of neovessel formation in a large animal preclinical model; combining an in vitro accelerated degradation study with mechanical testing, large animal implantation studies with in vivo imaging and histology, and data-informed computational growth and remodeling models. Results Our findings demonstrate that the structural integrity of the polymeric scaffold is lost over the first 26 weeks in vivo, while polymeric fragments persist for up to 52 weeks. Our models predict that early neotissue accumulation is driven primarily by inflammatory processes in response to the implanted polymeric scaffold, but that turnover becomes progressively mechano-mediated as the scaffold degrades. Using a lamb model, we confirm that early neotissue formation results primarily from the foreign body reaction induced by the scaffold, resulting in an early period of dynamic remodeling characterized by transient TEVG narrowing. As the scaffold degrades, mechano-mediated neotissue remodeling becomes dominant around 26 weeks. After the scaffold degrades completely, the resulting neovessel undergoes growth and remodeling that mimicks native vessel behavior, including biological growth capacity, further supported by fluid–structure interaction simulations providing detailed hemodynamic and wall stress information. Conclusions These findings provide insights into TEVG remodeling, and have important implications for clinical use and future development of TEVGs for children with congenital heart disease.

Einat Shaked ◽  
Ram Sharoni ◽  
Debra Gershov West ◽  
Eli I Lev

Abstract Background Intravascular leiomyomatosis with intracardiac extension is a rare benign tumor seen exclusively in women, characterized by proliferation of uterine smooth muscle cells through the venous circulation into the inferior vena cava and the right heart chambers. Case summary A 47 years old women with history of previous hysterectomy due to myomatosis, presented with nausea, anorexia and bilateral lower limb swelling over the preceding two months. An outpatient abdominal ultrasound discovered a mass in the Inferior vena cava. Echocardiogram and Computed tomography demonstrated a large intravascular mass extending from the pelvis to the right heart chambers. The tumor was completely removed in a concomitant open-heart surgery and laparotomy. Post operative course was uncomplicated. A month later the patient was feeling well and in good clinical condition. The histological analysis consisted with intravascular leiomyomatosis. Discussion Intracardiac leiomyomatosis is a rare clinical condition which requires high index of suspicion. Multimodality imaging is usually required to establish the preoperative diagnosis, although the final diagnosis is achieved with tissue investigation. Complete surgical resection of the tumor is curative and associated with good long-term prognosis.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Alireza Raissadati ◽  
Jari Haukka ◽  
Tommi Pätilä ◽  
Heta Nieminen ◽  
Eero Jokinen

Abstract Background: Improvements in mortality after congenital heart surgery have necessitated a shift in focus to postoperative morbidity as an outcome measure. We examined late morbidity after congenital heart surgery based on prescription medication use. Methods: Between 1953 and 2009, 10,635 patients underwent congenital heart surgery at <15 years of age in Finland. We obtained 4 age-, sex-, birth-time, and hospital district-matched controls per patient. The Social Insurance Institution of Finland provided data on all prescription medications obtained between 1999 and 2012 by patients and controls. Patients were assigned one diagnosis based on a hierarchical list of cardiac defects and dichotomised into simple and severe groups. Medications were divided into short- and long-term based on indication. Follow-up started at the first operation and ended at death, emigration, or 31 December, 2012. Results: Totally, 8623 patients met inclusion criteria. Follow-up was 99.9%. In total, 8126 (94%) patients required prescription medications. Systemic anti-bacterials were the most common short-term prescriptions among patients (93%) and controls (88%). Patients required betablockers (simple hazard ratio 1.9, 95% confidence interval 1.7–2.1; severe hazard ratio 6.5, 95% confidence interval 5.3–8.1) and diuretics (simple hazard ratio 3.2, 95% CI 2.8–3.7; severe hazard ratio 38.8, 95% CI 27.5–54.7) more often than the general population. Both simple and severe defects required medication for cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, psychiatric, neurologic, metabolic, autoimmune, and infectious diseases more often than the general population. Conclusions: The significant risk for postoperative cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular disease warrants close long-term follow-up after congenital heart surgery for all defects.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-6
Andrew E. Radbill ◽  
Andrew H. Smith ◽  
Sara L. Van Driest ◽  
Frank A. Fish ◽  
David P. Bichell ◽  

Abstract Background: Obesity increases the risk of post-operative arrhythmias in adults undergoing cardiac surgery, but little is known regarding the impact of obesity on post-operative arrhythmias after CHD surgery. Methods: Patients undergoing CHD surgery from 2007 to 2019 were prospectively enrolled in the parent study. Telemetry was assessed daily, with documentation of all arrhythmias. Patients aged 2–20 years were categorised by body mass index percentile for age and sex (underweight <5, normal 5–85, overweight 85–95, and obese >95). Patients aged >20 years were categorised using absolute body mass index. We investigated the impact of body mass index category on arrhythmias using univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: There were 1250 operative cases: 12% underweight, 65% normal weight, 12% overweight, and 11% obese. Post-operative arrhythmias were observed in 38%. Body mass index was significantly higher in those with arrhythmias (18.8 versus 17.8, p = 0.003). There was a linear relationship between body mass index category and incidence of arrhythmias: underweight 33%, normal 38%, overweight 42%, and obese 45% (p = 0.017 for trend). In multivariate analysis, body mass index category was independently associated with post-operative arrhythmias (p = 0.021), with odds ratio 1.64 in obese patients as compared to normal-weight patients (p = 0.036). In addition, aortic cross-clamp time (OR 1.007, p = 0.002) and maximal vasoactive–inotropic score in the first 48 hours (OR 1.03, p = 0.04) were associated with post-operative arrhythmias. Conclusion: Body mass index is independently associated with incidence of post-operative arrhythmias in children after CHD surgery.

Symmetry ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 81
Bogdan Mocan ◽  
Claudiu Schonstein ◽  
Calin Neamtu ◽  
Mircea Murar ◽  
Mircea Fulea ◽  

Following cardiac surgery, patients experience difficulties with the rehabilitation process, often finding it difficult, and therefore lack the motivation for rehabilitation activities. As the number of people aged 65 and over will rise by 207 percent globally by 2050, the need for cardiac rehabilitation will significantly increase, as this is the main population to experience heart problems. To address this challenge, this paper proposes a new robotic exoskeleton concept with 12 DoFs (6 DoFs on each arm), with a symmetrical structure for the upper limbs, to be used in the early rehabilitation of cardiac patients after open-heart surgery. The electromechanical design (geometric, kinematic, and dynamic model), the control architecture, and the VR-based operating module of the robotic exoskeleton are presented. To solve the problem of the high degree of complexity regarding the CardioVR-ReTone kinematic and dynamic model, the iterative algorithm, kinetic energy, and generalized forces were used. The results serve as a complete model of the exoskeleton, from a kinematic and dynamic point of view as well as to the selection of the electric motors, control system, and VR motivation model. The validation of the concept was achieved by evaluating the exoskeleton structure from an ergonomic point of view, emphasizing the movements that will be part of the cardiac rehabilitation.

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