clinical recommendations
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Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 377
Ignazio Stanganelli ◽  
Francesco Spagnolo ◽  
Giuseppe Argenziano ◽  
Paolo A. Ascierto ◽  
Franco Bassetto ◽  

Cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (CSCC) account for about 20% of all keratinocyte carcinomas, which are the most common form of cancer. Heterogeneity of treatments and low mortality are a challenge in obtaining accurate incidence data and consistent registration in cancer registries. Indeed, CSCC mostly presents as an indolent, low-risk lesion, with five-year cure rates greater than 90% after surgical excision, and only few tumors are associated with a high-risk of local or distant relapse; therefore, it is particularly relevant to identify high-risk lesions among all other low-risk CSCCs for the proper diagnostic and therapeutic management. Chemotherapy achieves mostly short-lived responses that do not lead to a curative effect and are associated with severe toxicities. Due to an etiopathogenesis largely relying on chronic UV radiation exposure, CSCC is among the tumors with the highest rate of somatic mutations, which are associated with increased response rates to immunotherapy. Thanks to such strong pre-clinical rationale, clinical trials led to the approval of anti-PD-1 cemiplimab by the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) and EMA (European Medicines Agency), and anti-PD-1 pembrolizumab by the FDA only. Here, we provide a literature review and clinical recommendations by a panel of experts regarding the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of CSCC.

V. T. Ivashkin ◽  
I. V. Maev ◽  
Yu. A. Shelygin ◽  
E. K. Baranskaya ◽  
S. S. Belous ◽  

Aim. Current clinical recommendations accentuate current methods for the diagnosis and treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).Key points. IBS is a functional bowel disorder manifested with recurrent, at least weekly, abdominal pain with the following attributes (any two leastwise): link to defecation, its frequency or stool shape. The symptoms are expected to persist for at minimum three months in a total six-month follow-up. Similar to other functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders, IBS can be diagnosed basing on the patient symptoms compliance with Rome IV criteria, provided the absence of potentially symptom-causative organic GI diseases. Due to challenging differential diagnosis, IBS can be appropriately established per exclusionem, with pre-examination as follows: general and biochemical blood tests; tissue transglutaminase IgA/IgG antibody tests; thyroid hormones test; faecal occult blood test; hydrogen glucose/ lactulose breath test for bacterial overgrowth; stool test for enteric bacterial pathogens and Clostridium difficile A/B toxins; stool calprotectin test; abdominal ultrasound; OGDS, with biopsy as appropriate; colonoscopy with biopsy. The IBS sequence is typically wavelike, with alternating remissions and exacerbations often triggered by psychoemotional stress. Treatment of IBS patients includes dietary and lifestyle adjustments, various-class drug agents prescription and psychotherapeutic measures.Conclusion. Adherence to clinical recommendations can facilitate timely diagnosis and improve medical aid quality in patients with different clinical IBS variants.

2022 ◽  
pp. 26-31
S. R. Zagidullina ◽  
A. S. Levashov ◽  
V. A. Grigorenko ◽  
T. T. Valiev

Medulloblastoma (MB) treatment in pediatric patients is an open challenge in clinical oncology. Current treatment protocols are risk-adopted and risk group criteria continuously evolve by increasing data about molecular and biologic mechanisms of MB tumorogenesis. In the current issue it is reviewed modern treatment programs, which became a basis of Russian and International clinical recommendations. It is analyzed treatment results according to regimens of chemotherapy and irradiation, absence or presence of metastases, histologic variant and molecular and biologic tumor features.

2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (6) ◽  
pp. 88
V.A. Bozhedomov ◽  
M.A. Mashina ◽  
I.A. Korneyev ◽  
E.V. Isakova ◽  
N.K. Bichevaya ◽  

Aamir Zahid Godil ◽  
Arshi Ilyas Kazi ◽  
Mohit Kheur ◽  
Saba Lambe ◽  
Rashmi Hegde

no abstract required

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (24) ◽  
pp. 5781
Karlijn Pellikaan ◽  
Yassine Ben Brahim ◽  
Anna G. W. Rosenberg ◽  
Kirsten Davidse ◽  
Christine Poitou ◽  

Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare neuroendocrine genetic syndrome. Characteristics of PWS include hyperphagia, hypotonia, and intellectual disability. Pituitary hormone deficiencies, caused by hypothalamic dysfunction, are common and hypogonadism is the most prevalent. Untreated hypogonadism can cause osteoporosis, which is already an important issue in PWS. Therefore, timely detection and treatment of hypogonadism is crucial. To increase understanding and prevent undertreatment, we (1) performed a cohort study in the Dutch PWS population, (2) thoroughly reviewed the literature on female hypogonadism in PWS and (3) provide clinical recommendations on behalf of an international expert panel. For the cohort study, we retrospectively collected results of a systematic health screening in 64 female adults with PWS, which included a medical questionnaire, medical file search, medical interview, physical examination and biochemical measurements. Our data show that hypogonadism is frequent in females with PWS (94%), but is often undiagnosed and untreated. This could be related to unfamiliarity with the syndrome, fear of behavioral changes, hygienic concerns, or drug interactions. To prevent underdiagnosis and undertreatment, we provide practical recommendations for the screening and treatment of hypogonadism in females with PWS.

2021 ◽  
pp. 088626052110550
Morgan E. PettyJohn ◽  
Grace Anderson ◽  
Heather L. McCauley

Since the inception of the viral #MeToo Movement in 2017, news coverage of sexual assault incidents and related public discourse have become much more prevalent on social media platforms. While this hashtag activism has prompted important social discourse, little is known about how exposure to this type of trauma-related content affects survivors of sexual violence navigating these online spaces. To explore this phenomenon, we conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews with young adult women survivors of sexual assault who regularly use social media (e.g., Facebook and Twitter). Participants were asked to reflect on sexual assault–related content (i.e., news stories and related public discourse) which they have observed on social media platforms. Thematic analysis of the qualitative data found survivors described (1) negative changes to their mental health and relationships in the face of these exposures, (2) certain types of content (e.g., rape culture narratives) which were particularly distressing to them, (3) how they coped with distress tied to this exposure, and (4) recommendations for clinicians on how to help survivors navigate social media in a healthier way. The present study is a first step toward understanding the impact of online social movements on trauma survivors and provides concrete clinical recommendations for therapists working with sexual assault survivors in this unique post-#MeToo context.

Shazia Mehmood Siddique ◽  
Folasade P. May

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